Welfare costs of inflation and the circulation of US currency abroad
Empirical studies of the "shoe-leather" costs of inflation are typically computed using M1 as a measure of money. Yet, official data on M1 includes all currency issued, regardless of the country of residence of the holder. Using monetary data adjusted for US dollars abroad, we show that the failure to control for currency held by non residents may lead to significantly overestimating the shoe-leather costs for the domestic economy. In particular, our estimates of shoe-leather costs are minimized for a positive but moderate value of the inflation rate, thereby justifying a deviation from the Friedman rule in favour of the Fed's current policy. JEL Classification: E31, E41, E52
|Date of creation:||Apr 2011|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: 60640 Frankfurt am Main, Germany|
Phone: +49 69 1344 0
Fax: +49 69 1344 6000
Web page: http://www.ecb.europa.eu/
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Peter C.B. Phillips & Sam Ouliaris, 1987.
"Asymptotic Properties of Residual Based Tests for Cointegration,"
Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers
847R, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University, revised Jul 1988.
- Phillips, Peter C B & Ouliaris, S, 1990. "Asymptotic Properties of Residual Based Tests for Cointegration," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 58(1), pages 165-93, January.
- Edgar L. Feige, 2005.
"The Underground Economy And The Currency Enigma,"
- Allan H. Meltzer, 1963. "The Demand for Money: The Evidence from the Time Series," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 71, pages 219.
- Saikkonen, Pentti, 1991. "Asymptotically Efficient Estimation of Cointegration Regressions," Econometric Theory, Cambridge University Press, vol. 7(01), pages 1-21, March.
- Case M. Sprenkle, 1993. "The Case of the Missing Currency," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 7(4), pages 175-184, Fall.
- Milton Friedman & Anna J. Schwartz, 1963. "A Monetary History of the United States, 1867–1960," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number frie63-1, March.
- Schmitt-Grohé, Stephanie & Uribe, Martín, 2009.
"Foreign Demand for Domestic Currency and the Optimal Rate of Inflation,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
7549, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Stephanie Schmitt-Grohé & Martín Uribe, 2009. "Foreign Demand for Domestic Currency and the Optimal Rate of Inflation," NBER Working Papers 15494, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Yunus Aksoy & Tomasz Piskorski, 2004.
"U.S. Domestic Money, Inflation and Output,"
- Thomas Laubach & John C. Williams, 2003.
"Measuring the Natural Rate of Interest,"
The Review of Economics and Statistics,
MIT Press, vol. 85(4), pages 1063-1070, November.
- Thomas Laubach & John C. Williams, 2001. "Measuring the natural rate of interest," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2001-56, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
- Thomas Laubach and John C. Williams, 2001. "Measuring the Natural Rate of Interest," Computing in Economics and Finance 2001 35, Society for Computational Economics.
- Edward C. Prescott, 1996.
"Inflation targeting in a St. Louis model of the 21st century - commentary,"
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue May, pages 112-117.
- Edward C. Prescott, 1996. "Inflation targeting in a St. Louis model of the 21st century - commentary," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue May, pages 112-117.
- Cysne, Rubens Penha & Turchick, David, 2010.
"Welfare costs of inflation when interest-bearing deposits are disregarded: A calculation of the bias,"
Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control,
Elsevier, vol. 34(6), pages 1015-1030, June.
- Cysne, Rubens Penha & Turchick, David, 2010. "Welfare costs of inflation when interest-bearing deposits are disregarded: A calculation of the bias," Economics Working Papers (Ensaios Economicos da EPGE) 700, FGV/EPGE Escola Brasileira de Economia e Finanças, Getulio Vargas Foundation (Brazil).
- Barry Z. Cynamon & Donald H. Dutkowsky & Barry E. Jones, 2006. "Redefining the Monetary Agggregates: A Clean Sweep," Eastern Economic Journal, Eastern Economic Association, vol. 32(4), pages 661-672, Fall.
- Michael Dotsey & Peter N. Ireland, 1994.
"The welfare cost of inflation in general equilibrium,"
94-04, Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond.
- Dotsey, Michael & Ireland, Peter, 1996. "The welfare cost of inflation in general equilibrium," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 29-47, February.
- Engle, R. F. & Granger, C. W. J. (ed.), 1991. "Long-Run Economic Relationships: Readings in Cointegration," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198283393, July.
- Dutkowsky, Donald H & Cynamon, Barry Z, 2003. " Sweep Programs: The Fall of M1 and Rebirth of the Medium of Exchange," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 35(2), pages 263-79, April.
- Alessandro Calza & Andrea Zaghini, 2011.
"Sectoral money demand and the great disinflation in the US,"
Temi di discussione (Economic working papers)
785, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
- Calza, Alessandro & Zaghini, Andrea, 2010. "Sectoral money demand and the great disinflation in the US," Working Paper Series 1218, European Central Bank.
- Duca, John V. & VanHoose, David D., 2004. "Recent developments in understanding the demand for money," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 56(4), pages 247-272.
- Max Gillman, 1995. "Comparing Partial And General Equilibrium Estimates Of The Welfare Cost Of Inflation," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 13(4), pages 60-71, October.
- Peter N. Ireland, 2007.
"On the Welfare Cost of Inflation and the Recent Behavior of Money Demand,"
Boston College Working Papers in Economics
662, Boston College Department of Economics.
- Peter N. Ireland, 2009. "On the Welfare Cost of Inflation and the Recent Behavior of Money Demand," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 99(3), pages 1040-52, June.
- Peter N. Ireland, 2008. "On the Welfare Cost of Inflation and the Recent Behavior of Money Demand," NBER Working Papers 14098, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Richard G. Anderson, 2003. "Retail deposit sweep programs: issues for measurement, modeling and analysis," Working Papers 2003-026, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
- Maurice Obstfeld & Kenneth S. Rogoff, 1996. "Foundations of International Macroeconomics," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262150476, June.
- Casey B. Mulligan & Xavier Sala-i-Martin, 2000. "Extensive Margins and the Demand for Money at Low Interest Rates," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 108(5), pages 961-991, October.
- Robert E. Lucas, Jr., 2000. "Inflation and Welfare," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 68(2), pages 247-274, March.
- Richard D. Porter & Ruth Judson, 1996. "The location of U.S. currency: how much is abroad?," Federal Reserve Bulletin, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.), issue Oct, pages 883-903.
- Rubens Penha Cysne, 2009. "Bailey's Measure of the Welfare Costs of Inflation as a General-Equilibrium Measure," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 41(2-3), pages 451-459, 03.
- Subramanian S. Sriram, 2001. "A Survey of Recent Empirical Money Demand Studies," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 47(3), pages 3.
- Alessandro Calza & Andrea Zaghini, 2010. "Sectoral Money Demand and the Great Disinflation in the United States," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 42(8), pages 1663-1678, December.
- Feige, Edgar L., 1997. "Revised estimates of the Underground Economy: Implications of US Currency held abroad," MPRA Paper 13805, University Library of Munich, Germany.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ecb:ecbwps:20111326. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Official Publications)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.