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Sweep Programs: The Fall of M1 and Rebirth of the Medium of Exchange


  • Dutkowsky, Donald H
  • Cynamon, Barry Z


This paper investigates the effect of sweep programs on M1 using dynamic simulations of money demand over 1994-2000. The postsample period constitutes when sweep programs have been in effect. All models generate predictions systematically above reported M1. Using data on newly initiated programs, test findings indicate that sweeps account for the overprediction within the conventional money demand model with a long-term interest rate. We construct a medium of exchange measure, M/S, equal to M1 plus estimated holdings of sweep balances. M/S velocity compares favorably with that of broader aggregates. Evidence indicates cointegration within M/S money demand.

Suggested Citation

  • Dutkowsky, Donald H & Cynamon, Barry Z, 2003. " Sweep Programs: The Fall of M1 and Rebirth of the Medium of Exchange," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 35(2), pages 263-279, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:mcb:jmoncb:v:35:y:2003:i:2:p:263-79

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Calza Alessandro & Zaghini Andrea, 2011. "Welfare Costs of Inflation and the Circulation of U.S. Currency Abroad," The B.E. Journal of Macroeconomics, De Gruyter, vol. 11(1), pages 1-21, May.
    2. Elger, Thomas & Jones, Barry E., 2008. "Can rejections of weak separability be attributed to random measurement errors in the data?," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 99(1), pages 44-47, April.
    3. Aleksander Berentsen & Samuel Huber & Alessandro Marchesiani, 2015. "Limited commitment and the demand for money," ECON - Working Papers 199, Department of Economics - University of Zurich, revised Feb 2016.
    4. Kelly, Logan J. & Barnett, William A. & Keating, John W., 2011. "Rethinking the liquidity puzzle: Application of a new measure of the economic money stock," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 768-774, April.
    5. Youngsoo Bae & Robert M. de Jong, 2007. "Money demand function estimation by nonlinear cointegration," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 22(4), pages 767-793.
    6. David Cook & Woon Gyu Choi, 2007. "Financial Market Risk and U.S. Money Demand," IMF Working Papers 07/89, International Monetary Fund.
    7. Jones, Barry E. & Fleissig, Adrian R. & Elger, Thomas & Dutkowsky, Donald H., 2008. "Retail sweep programs and monetary asset substitution," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 99(1), pages 159-163, April.
    8. Peter N. Ireland, 2009. "On the Welfare Cost of Inflation and the Recent Behavior of Money Demand," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 99(3), pages 1040-1052, June.
    9. Elger, Thomas & Jones, Barry E. & Nilsson, Birger, 2006. "Forecasting with Monetary Aggregates: Recent Evidence for the United States," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 58(5-6), pages 428-446.
    10. Barry Z. Cynamon & Donald H. Dutkowsky & Barry E. Jones, 2006. "Redefining the Monetary Agggregates: A Clean Sweep," Eastern Economic Journal, Eastern Economic Association, vol. 32(4), pages 661-672, Fall.
    11. Calza, Alessandro & Zaghini, Andrea, 2010. "Sectoral money demand and the great disinflation in the US," Working Paper Series 1218, European Central Bank.
    12. Faugere, Christophe, 2010. "Macrofoundations for A (Near) 2% Inflation Target," MPRA Paper 23491, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 25 Jun 2010.
    13. Richard G. Anderson & Barry E. Jones, 2011. "A comprehensive revision of the U.S. monetary services (divisia) indexes," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Sep, pages 325-360.
    14. Duca, John V., 2014. "What drives the shadow banking system in the short and long run?," Working Papers 1401, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas.
    15. Duca, John V., 2016. "How capital regulation and other factors drive the role of shadow banking in funding short-term business credit," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 69(S1), pages 10-24.
    16. Jones, Barry E. & Dutkowsky, Donald H. & Elger, Thomas, 2005. "Sweep programs and optimal monetary aggregation," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 483-508, February.
    17. Ball, Laurence, 2012. "Short-run money demand," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(7), pages 622-633.
    18. El-Shagi, Makram & Giesen, Sebastian & Kelly, Logan J., 2012. "Monetary Policy in a World Where Money (Also) Matters," IWH Discussion Papers 6/2012, Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH).
    19. Duca, John V. & VanHoose, David D., 2004. "Recent developments in understanding the demand for money," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 56(4), pages 247-272.
    20. Dutkowsky, Donald H. & VanHoose, David D., 2011. "Interest on bank reserves and optimal sweeping," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 35(9), pages 2491-2497, September.
    21. Donald H. Dutkowsky & Barry Z. Cynamon & Barry E. Jones, 2006. "U.S. Narrow Money for the Twenty-First Century," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 44(1), pages 142-152, January.
    22. Richard G. Anderson, 2003. "Retail deposit sweep programs: issues for measurement, modeling and analysis," Working Papers 2003-026, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.

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