EU Enlargement under Continued Mobility Restrictions: Consequences for the German Labor Market
The numbers of migrants from the accessions countries have clearly increased since the enlargement of the EU in 2004. Following enlargement, the net inflow of EU8 immigrants has become 2.5 times larger than the four-year period before enlargement. Poles constitute the largest immigrant group among the EU8 immigrants: since enlargement, 63% of all immigrants and 71% of EU8 immigrants are from Poland. This chapter presents new evidence on the impact of immigrant flow from EU8 countries on the German labor market since EU enlargement. Unlike other EU countries, Germany has not immediately opened up its labor market for immigrants from the new member states. Nevertheless, our analysis documents a substantial inflow and suggests that the composition of EU8 immigrants has changed since EU enlargement. The majority of the new EU8 immigrants are male and young, and they are less educated compared to previous immigrant groups. We also find that recent EU8 immigrants are more likely to be self-employed than employed as a wage earner. Furthermore, these recent EU8 immigrants earn less conditional on being employed or self-employed. Our findings suggest that these recent EU8 immigrants are more likely to compete with immigrants from outside of Europe for low-skilled jobs instead of competing with German natives. While Germany needs high-skilled immigrants, our analysis suggests that the new EU8 immigrants only replace non-EU immigrants in low-skilled jobs. These results underline the importance of more open immigration policies targeting high-skilled immigrants. The current policy not only cannot attract the required high-skilled workforce, but also cannot avoid the attraction of low-skilled immigrants, and is a complete failure.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
|Date of creation:||Apr 2009|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Centre for Economic Policy Research, 77 Bastwick Street, London EC1V 3PZ.|
Phone: 44 - 20 - 7183 8801
Fax: 44 - 20 - 7183 8820
|Order Information:|| Email: |
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Karl Brenke & Klaus F. Zimmermann, 2007. "Zuwanderungen aus Mittel- und Osteuropa trotz Arbeitsmarktbarrieren deutlich gestiegen," DIW Wochenbericht, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research, vol. 74(44), pages 645-653.
- Anzelika Zaiceva & Klaus F. Zimmermann, 2008.
"Scale, diversity, and determinants of labour migration in Europe,"
Oxford Review of Economic Policy,
Oxford University Press, vol. 24(3), pages 428-452, Autumn.
- Zaiceva, Anzelika & Zimmermann, Klaus F, 2008. "Scale, Diversity and Determinants of Labour Migration in Europe," CEPR Discussion Papers 6921, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Zaiceva, Anzelika & Zimmermann, Klaus F., 2008. "Scale, Diversity, and Determinants of Labour Migration in Europe," IZA Discussion Papers 3595, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Bonin, Holger & Eichhorst, Werner & Florman, Christer & Hansen, Mette Okkels & Skiöld, Lena & Stuhler, Jan & Tatsiramos, Konstantinos & Thomasen, Henrik & Zimmermann, Klaus F., 2008. "Report No. 19: Geographic Mobility in the European Union: Optimising its Economic and Social Benefits," IZA Research Reports 19, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- De Giorgi, Giacomo & Pellizzari, Michele, 2006. "Welfare Migration in Europe and the Cost of a Harmonised Social Assistance," IZA Discussion Papers 2094, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Kahanec, Martin & Zimmermann, Klaus F., 2008. "Migration in an Enlarged EU: A Challenging Solution?," IZA Discussion Papers 3913, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Kahanec, Martin & Zimmermann, Klaus F, 2009. "Migration in an enlarged EU: A challenging solution?," CEPR Discussion Papers 7200, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Martin Kahanec & Klaus F. Zimmermann, 2009. "Migration in an enlarged EU: A challenging solution?," European Economy - Economic Papers 2008 - 2015 363, Directorate General Economic and Financial Affairs (DG ECFIN), European Commission.
- Martin Kahanec & Klaus F. Zimmermann, 2008. "Migration in an Enlarged EU: A Challenging Solution?," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 849, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
- De Giorgi, Giacomo & Pellizzari, Michele, 2009. "Welfare migration in Europe," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 353-363, August.
- Blanchflower, David G. & Lawton, Helen, 2008. "The Impact of the Recent Expansion of the EU on the UK Labour Market," IZA Discussion Papers 3695, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA). Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)