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Are there Economies of Scale in the Demand for Money by Firms? Some Panel Data Estimates

  • Bover, Olympia
  • Watson, Nadine

We estimate scale elasticities in firms' money demand using panel data. Our main data set is a sample of Spanish companies observed over 1983-96. We also analyse comparable UK and US data sets. We find that the errors in money demand equations contain two terms correlated with sales: first, a permanent firm effect capturing differences in managerial efficiency, efficiency wages, technological sophistication; second, a measurement error in sales, probably because cash holdings are end-of-period whereas sales are annual measures. We show that failure to control for them results in important biases. Sales elasticity estimates for Spain increase substantially jointly considering correlated fixed effects and measurement error. Additionally, our estimates indicate declining sales elasticity from mid-1980s to mid-1990s, a period of increasing financial innovations. This suggests that financial innovations reduce money demand mainly by reducing the sales elasticity. We also estimate interest rate elasticities using both aggregate and firm specific rates.

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Paper provided by C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers in its series CEPR Discussion Papers with number 2818.

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Date of creation: Apr 2001
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:2818
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  1. Casey B. Mulligan, 1997. "The demand for money by firms: some additional empirical results," Discussion Paper / Institute for Empirical Macroeconomics 125, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
  2. Feenstra, Robert C., 1986. "Functional equivalence between liquidity costs and the utility of money," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 271-291, March.
  3. Mulligan, Casey B & Sala-i-Martin, Xavier, 1996. "Adoption of Financial Technologies: Implications for Money Demand and Monetary Policy," CEPR Discussion Papers 1358, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  4. Zvi Griliches & Jerry A. Hausman, 1984. "Errors in Variables in Panel Data," NBER Technical Working Papers 0037, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  5. Milton Friedman, 1959. "The Demand for Money: Some Theoretical and Empirical Results," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 67, pages 327.
  6. Orazio Attanasio & Luigi Guiso & Tullio Jappelli, 1998. "The Demand for Money, Financial Innovation, and the Welfare Cost of Inflation: An Analysis with Households' Data," CSEF Working Papers 03, Centre for Studies in Economics and Finance (CSEF), University of Naples, Italy.
  7. Pesaran, M.H. & Smith, R., 1992. "Estimating Long-Run Relationships From Dynamic Heterogeneous Panels," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 9215, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge.
  8. King, Robert G., 1988. "Money demand in the United States: A quantitative review," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 169-172, January.
  9. Bover, Olympia & Watson, Nadine, 2001. "Are there Economies of Scale in the Demand for Money by Firms? Some Panel Data Estimates," CEPR Discussion Papers 2818, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  10. M Arellano & O Bover, 1990. "Another Look at the Instrumental Variable Estimation of Error-Components Models," CEP Discussion Papers dp0007, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  11. Casey B. Mulligan & Xavier Sala-I-Martin, 1992. "U.S. Money Demand: Surprising Cross-Sectional Estimates," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 23(2), pages 285-343.
  12. Faig, Miquel, 1988. "Characterization of the optimal tax on money when it functions as a medium of exchange," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 137-148, July.
  13. Lucas, Robert E., 1988. "Money demand in the United States: A quantitative review," Carnegie-Rochester Conference Series on Public Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(1), pages 137-167, January.
  14. Hiroshi Fujiki & Casey B. Mulligan, 1996. "Production, Financial Sophistication, and the Demand for Money by Households and Firms," Monetary and Economic Studies, Institute for Monetary and Economic Studies, Bank of Japan, vol. 14(1), pages 65-103, July.
  15. Allan H. Meltzer, 1963. "The Demand for Money: The Evidence from the Time Series," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 71, pages 219.
  16. Mulligan, Casey B, 1997. "Scale Economies, the Value of Time, and the Demand for Money: Longitudinal Evidence from Firms," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 105(5), pages 1061-79, October.
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