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Men. Roots and Consequences of Masculinity Norms

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  • Baranov, Victoria
  • de Haas, Ralph
  • Grosjean, Pauline

Abstract

We document the historical roots and contemporary consequences of masculinity norms: beliefs about the proper conduct of men. We exploit a natural experiment in which convict transportation in the 18th and 19th centuries created a variegated spatial pattern of sex ratios across Australia. Areas that were heavily male-biased in the past (though not the present) remain characterized by more violence, male suicide, occupational gender segregation, opposition to same-sex marriage, and bullying of boys in schools. We interpret these results as manifestations of masculinity norms that emerged due to intense local male-male competition and that have persisted to this day.

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  • Baranov, Victoria & de Haas, Ralph & Grosjean, Pauline, 2020. "Men. Roots and Consequences of Masculinity Norms," CEPR Discussion Papers 14493, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  • Handle: RePEc:cpr:ceprdp:14493
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    Cited by:

    1. Brodeur, Abel & Haddad, Joanne, 2018. "Institutions, Attitudes and LGBT: Evidence from the Gold Rush," IZA Discussion Papers 11957, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    2. Akerlof, Robert & Rayo, Luis, 2020. "Narratives and the Economics of the Family," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 1299, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
    3. Nathan Nunn, 2020. "History as Evolution," NBER Working Papers 27706, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Mariarosaria Comunale, 2020. "The persistently high rate of suicide in Lithuania: an updated view," Bank of Lithuania Discussion Paper Series 21, Bank of Lithuania.
    5. Delfino, Alexia, 2021. "Breaking Gender Barriers: Experimental Evidence on Men in Pink-Collar Jobs," IZA Discussion Papers 14083, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    6. Akerlof, Robert & Rayo, Luis, 2020. "Narratives and the Economics of the Family," CAGE Online Working Paper Series 503, Competitive Advantage in the Global Economy (CAGE).
    7. Maxim Ananyev & Michael Poyker, 2020. "Christian missions and anti-gay attitudes in Africa," Discussion Papers 2020-04, Nottingham Interdisciplinary Centre for Economic and Political Research (NICEP).

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Cultural persistence; identity; Masculinity; Natural Experiment; Sex ratio;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • I31 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - General Welfare, Well-Being
    • J12 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Marriage; Marital Dissolution; Family Structure
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • N37 - Economic History - - Labor and Consumers, Demography, Education, Health, Welfare, Income, Wealth, Religion, and Philanthropy - - - Africa; Oceania
    • Z13 - Other Special Topics - - Cultural Economics - - - Economic Sociology; Economic Anthropology; Language; Social and Economic Stratification

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