Barriers to Exit from Subsistence Agriculture
This paper reviews the evidence on the determinants of subsistence agriculture and the barriers that farmers face to switch to market-oriented agriculture. We review a number of recent empirical approaches to the estimation of variable, fixed, and sunk transaction costs, with the weight of the evidence suggesting that those costs are very substantial. Tentative policy implications are drawn in terms of infrastructure and support as well as the organization of intermediation markets.
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- Eswaran, Mukesh & Kotwal, Ashok, 1986. "Access to Capital and Agrarian Production Organisation," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 96(382), pages 482-498, June.
- Irene Brambilla & Guido G. Porto, 2005. "Farm Productivity and Market Structure. Evidence From Cotton Reforms in Zambia," Working Papers 919, Economic Growth Center, Yale University.
- Moser, Christine M. & Barrett, Christopher B. & Minten, Bart, 2005. "Missed opportunities and missing markets: Spatio-temporal arbitrage of rice in Madagascar," 2005 Annual meeting, July 24-27, Providence, RI 19338, American Agricultural Economics Association (New Name 2008: Agricultural and Applied Economics Association).
- Vakis, Renos & Sadoulet, Elisabeth & de Janvry, Alain, 2003. "Measuring Transactions Costs from Observed Behavior: Market Choices in Peru," Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley, Working Paper Series qt7p81h66q, Department of Agricultural & Resource Economics, UC Berkeley.
- Bart Minten & Lalaina Randrianarison & Johan Swinnen, 2007. "Spillovers from high-value agriculture for exports on land use in developing countries: evidence from Madagascar," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 37(2-3), pages 265-275, 09.
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