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Why Did Abolishing Fees Not Increase Public School Enrollment in Kenya?- Working Paper 271

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  • Tessa Bold, Mwangi Kimenyi, Germano Mwabu, Justin Sandefur

Abstract

A large empirical literature has shown that user fees significantly deter public service utilization in developing countries. While most of these results reflect partial equilibrium analysis, we find that the nationwide abolition of public school fees in Kenya in 2003 led to no increase in net public enrollment rates, but rather a dramatic shift toward private schooling. Results suggest this divergence between partial- and general-equilibrium effects is partially explained by social interactions: the entry of poorer pupils into free education contributed to the exit of their more affluent peers.

Suggested Citation

  • Tessa Bold, Mwangi Kimenyi, Germano Mwabu, Justin Sandefur, 2011. " Why Did Abolishing Fees Not Increase Public School Enrollment in Kenya?- Working Paper 271," Working Papers 271, Center for Global Development.
  • Handle: RePEc:cgd:wpaper:271
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    File URL: http://www.cgdev.org/files/1425590_file_Sandefur_School_Fees_Kenya_FINAL.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Nava Ashraf & James Berry & Jesse M. Shapiro, 2010. "Can Higher Prices Stimulate Product Use? Evidence from a Field Experiment in Zambia," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 100(5), pages 2383-2413, December.
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    4. Ai, Chunrong & Norton, Edward C., 2003. "Interaction terms in logit and probit models," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 80(1), pages 123-129, July.
    5. Paul Schultz, T., 2004. "School subsidies for the poor: evaluating the Mexican Progresa poverty program," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 74(1), pages 199-250, June.
    6. Thomas Cornelissen & Katja Sonderhof, 2009. "Partial effects in probit and logit models with a triple dummy-variable interaction term," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 9(4), pages 571-583, December.
    7. Ritva Reinikka & Jakob Svensson, 2004. "Local Capture: Evidence from a Central Government Transfer Program in Uganda," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 119(2), pages 679-705.
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    Cited by:

    1. Tahir Andrabi & Jishnu Das & Asim Ijaz Khwaja, 2015. "Delivering education: a pragmatic framework for improving education in low-income countries," Chapters,in: Handbook of International Development and Education, chapter 6, pages 85-130 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    2. Isis Gaddis & Lionel Demery, 2012. "Benefit incidence analysis, needs and demography. Measurement issues and an empirical study for Kenya," Courant Research Centre: Poverty, Equity and Growth - Discussion Papers 122, Courant Research Centre PEG.
    3. Taylor, Stephen & Spaull, Nicholas, 2015. "Measuring access to learning over a period of increased access to schooling: The case of Southern and Eastern Africa since 2000," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 47-59.
    4. Elin Vimefall & Daniela Andrén & Jörgen Levin, 2017. "Ethnolinguistic Background and Enrollment in Primary Education: Evidence from Kenya," African Development Review, African Development Bank, vol. 29(1), pages 81-91, March.
    5. Berk Ozler, 2015. "Keeping Girls in School," World Bank Other Operational Studies 23866, The World Bank.
    6. Barakat, Bilal, 2016. "“Sorry I forgot your birthday!”: Adjusting apparent school participation for survey timing when age is measured in whole years," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 300-313.
    7. Jenny Aker, 2013. "Scaling Up What Works: Experimental Evidence on External Validity in Kenyan Education," Working Papers 321, Center for Global Development.

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