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La desigualdad económica entre las regiones de Colombia, 1926-2016

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Este documento estima la actividad económica regional observada durante el siglo XX en Colombia. Se hace un recuento de los factores que incidieron sobre el desempeño económico de las regiones, entre los cuales se considera la baja integración de los mercados locales y el desarrollo tardío de la infraestructura de transporte. Dado que las cifras oficiales de producción regional sólo están disponibles para las últimas tres décadas, se presenta una estimación de la actividad económica para seis regiones colombianas durante el siglo XX. Dicha estimación permite la aplicación de técnicas de análisis de convergencia regional, como las realizadas por Robert Barro y Xavier Sala-i-Martin. Se concluye que Colombia es un país donde no se ha observado un proceso de convergencia regional del producto per cápita. La producción se concentra en las regiones cercanas al centro del país, mientras que las regiones periféricas como las costas Caribe y Pacífica presentan una disminución en términos relativos en su actividad económica per cápita. **** ABSTRACT: This paper estimates regional economic activity in Colombia during the 20th century. Some factors that influenced the development of regional inequalities in economic activity are, among others, the low regional integration because of the late development of transport infrastructure. Given that official data on economic activity is only available for the last three decades, we present an estimation of regional production for the 20th century. These estimations are then used to discuss the absence of regional convergence in the country. Well-known techniques used in the literature of economic convergence are applied, such as those proposed by Robert Barro and Xavier Sala-i-Martin. We conclude that the central regions in Colombia have improved in terms of their per capita economic production, while peripheral regions, such as the Caribbean and Pacific coasts, have lagged in relative terms.

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  • Lucas Wilfried Hahn-De-Castro & Adolfo Meisel-Roca, 2018. "La desigualdad económica entre las regiones de Colombia, 1926-2016," Cuadernos de Historia Económica 47, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
  • Handle: RePEc:bdr:cheedt:47
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    1. Robert J. Barro, 1991. "Economic Growth in a Cross Section of Countries," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 106(2), pages 407-443.
    2. Durlauf, Steven N. & Quah, Danny T., 1999. "The new empirics of economic growth," Handbook of Macroeconomics,in: J. B. Taylor & M. Woodford (ed.), Handbook of Macroeconomics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 4, pages 235-308 Elsevier.
    3. Boris Branisa & Adriana Cardozo, 2009. "Revisiting the Regional Growth Convergence Debate in Colombia Using Income Indicators," Ibero America Institute for Econ. Research (IAI) Discussion Papers 194, Ibero-America Institute for Economic Research, revised 21 Aug 2009.
    4. Roberto Junguito, 1996. "The Management of Coffee: Bonanzas and Crisis: Political Economy Issues," Borradores de Economia 053, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
    5. Bernard, Andrew B. & Durlauf, Steven N., 1996. "Interpreting tests of the convergence hypothesis," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 71(1-2), pages 161-173.
    6. Galvis-Aponte Luis Armando & Hahn-De-Castro Lucas Wilfried, 2016. "Crecimiento municipal en Colombia: el papel de las externalidades espaciales, el capital humano y el capital físico," Revista Sociedad y Economía - CIDSE, Universidad del Valle - CIDSE, issue 31, pages 11-286, May.
    7. N. Gregory Mankiw & David Romer & David N. Weil, 1992. "A Contribution to the Empirics of Economic Growth," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 107(2), pages 407-437.
    8. Leonardo Villar & Pilar Esguerra, 2005. "El Comercio Exterior Colombiano En El Siglo Xx," BORRADORES DE ECONOMIA 002468, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA.
    9. Vicente Royuela & Gustavo Adolfo García, 2015. "Economic and Social Convergence in Colombia," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 49(2), pages 219-239, February.
    10. Roberto Junguito & Hernán Rincón, 2004. "La política fiscal en el siglo XX en Colombia: una visión global," Coyuntura Económica, Fedesarrollo, December.
    11. Bernard, Andrew B & Durlauf, Steven N, 1995. "Convergence in International Output," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 10(2), pages 97-108, April-Jun.
    12. Roberto Junguito, 1996. "The management of coffee bonanzas and crisis: political economy issues," BORRADORES DE ECONOMIA 003610, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA.
    13. Leonardo Villar & Pilar Esguerra, 2005. "Comercio Exterior Colombiano En El Siglo Xx," Borradores de Economia 358, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
    14. Quah, Danny, 1993. " Galton's Fallacy and Tests of the Convergence Hypothesis," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 95(4), pages 427-443, December.
    15. Ricardo Rocha & Alejandro Vivas, 1998. "Crecimiento regional en Colombia: ¿Persiste la desigualdad?," Revista de Economía del Rosario, Universidad del Rosario, January.
    16. Roberto Junguito & Hernán Rincón, 2004. "La Política Fiscal en el Siglo XX en Colombia," Borradores de Economia 318, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
    17. Boris Branisa & Adriana Cardozo, 2009. "Regional Growth Convergence in Colombia Using Social Indicators," Ibero America Institute for Econ. Research (IAI) Discussion Papers 195, Ibero-America Institute for Economic Research.
    18. Adolfo Meisel, 1993. "¿Polarización o convergancia? A propósito de Cárdenas, Pontón y Trujillo," Coyuntura Económica, Fedesarrollo, vol. 23(2), pages 153-160, July.
    19. repec:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa13p182 is not listed on IDEAS
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    Keywords

    Siglo XX; Convergencia regional; Colombia; Siglo XX; Convergencia regional; Colombia;

    JEL classification:

    • N96 - Economic History - - Regional and Urban History - - - Latin America; Caribbean
    • O18 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Urban, Rural, Regional, and Transportation Analysis; Housing; Infrastructure
    • R11 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Regional Economic Activity: Growth, Development, Environmental Issues, and Changes

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