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Banknote Printing At Modern Central Banking: Trends, Costs, And Efficiency

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  • Jorge Eduardo Galán Camacho
  • Miguel Sarmiento Paipilla

Abstract

This paper examines trends in banknote printing during the period 2000-2005 for a crosssection of 56 central banks. Because of the high increase in the demand for currency in recent years, central banks have implemented new strategies to increase efficiency in the production of banknotes. Some of them, involve the private sector by means of different modalities (e.g. joint ventures, subsidiaries or purchase of banknotes from specialized companies), and the integration of banknote printing and cash processing in a single complex (e.g. Portugal and Colombia). A cost function using a panel data model with random effects was estimated. It was identified that the denomination structure, the size of banknotes, and the production method used by central banks have a significant impact on production costs. Government printing was found to be the most costly method, while private-sector involvement in the process substantially reduces production costs. Using a non-parametric efficient frontier model, it was found that most central banks have increased its technical efficiency during the period, especially in central banks where the privatesector has involved. Computing a Malmquist index through distance functions it was identified that central banks have showed a moderate increase in its productivity, primarily due to increases in efficiency and, in a lower proportion to technical change. In most of the cases, a positive change in efficiency is mainly the result of higher scale efficiency. This could obey to high increase in demand for currency.

Suggested Citation

  • Jorge Eduardo Galán Camacho & Miguel Sarmiento Paipilla, 2007. "Banknote Printing At Modern Central Banking: Trends, Costs, And Efficiency," Borradores de Economia 476, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
  • Handle: RePEc:bdr:borrec:476
    DOI: 10.32468/be.476
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    Cited by:

    1. Van Hove, Leo, 2015. "Modelling banknote printing costs: of cohorts, generations, and note-years," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 238-249.
    2. Freddy H. Castro & Ingrid Monroy, 2011. "Demanda laboral en la Banca Central: análisis de tendencias 2000-2009," Borradores de Economia 662, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
    3. Javier E. Pirateque & José H. Piñeros & Linda Mondragón, 2013. "Eficiencia de los establecimientos bancarios (EB): una aproximación mediante modelos DEA," Borradores de Economia 798, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
    4. Miguel SARMIENTOO & Andrés CEPEDA & Hernando MUTIS & Juan F. PÉREZ, 2013. "Nueva Evidencia sobre la Eficiencia de la Banca," Archivos de Economía 010705, Departamento Nacional de Planeación.
    5. Bouhdaoui, Y. & Bounie, D. & Van Hove, L., 2013. "When do plastic bills lower the bill for the central bank? A model and estimates for the U.S," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 45-60.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Central Banks; Banknote Printing; Efficiency Frontier; Cost Function; Panel Data; Malmquist Index.;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • E50 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - General
    • C33 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models
    • C23 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models
    • C43 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics - - - Index Numbers and Aggregation

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