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Medidas de Riesgo, Características y Técnicas de Medición: Una Aplicación del VAR y el ES a la Tasa Interbancaria de Colombia

  • Luis Fernando Melo Velandia

    ()

  • Oscar reinaldo Becerra Camargo

    ()

En este documento se describen en detalle diversas metodologías que permiten calcular dos medidas utilizadas para cuantificar el riesgo de mercado asociado a un activo financiero: el valor en riesgo, VaR y el Expected Shortfall, ES. Los métodos analizados se dividen en dos grupos. En el primer grupo, compuesto por las metodologías de normalidad, simulación histórica y teoría del valor extremo (EVT), no se modelan las dependencias existentes en el primer y segundo momento condicional de la serie. En el segundo grupo, las metodologías ARMA-GARCH y ARMA-GARCH-EVT modelan los dos tipos de dependencias, mientras RiskMetrics® modela solo la segunda. Estas metodologías son aplicadas a las variaciones diarias de la tasa interbancaria para el periodo comprendido entre el 16 de abril de 1995 y el 30 de diciembre de 2004. El desempeño o backtesting del VaR calculado para diferentes metodologías en los años 2003 y 2004 muestra que las mejores son aquellas que modelan la dependencia de la varianza condicional, tales como los modelos RiskMetrics®, ARMA-GARCH y ARMA-GARCH-EVT. Las técnicas con el peor desempeño son la de simulación histórica, la EVT sin modelar dependencia y la basada en el supuesto de normalidad.

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Paper provided by Banco de la Republica de Colombia in its series Borradores de Economia with number 343.

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