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A spatial competitive analysis: the carbon leakage effect on the cement industry under the European Emissions Trading Scheme

Author

Listed:
  • Elisabetta Allevi

    () (University of Brescia)

  • Giorgia Oggioni

    () (University of Brescia)

  • Rossana Riccardi

    () (University of Brescia)

  • Marco Rocco

    () (Bank of Italy)

Abstract

The European Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) is a cap and trade system to curb CO2 emissions. It has caused both direct costs (CO2 allowances) and indirect costs (higher electricity prices) to energy-intensive industries. Moreover, as there is no global CO2 agreement, the ETS could distort the European economy, prompting energy-intensive industries to relocate production to unregulated countries: the �carbon leakage� effect. This paper investigates the impact of ETS on the cement industry, focusing on Italy, the second European producer, analyzing a Cournot oligopolistic partial equilibrium model with a detailed technological representation of the market. Simulation results show that the European and Italian cement markets are subject to carbon leakage, especially where carbon regulation is more stringent and where plants are located near the seacoast. Further, transportation costs - particularly high in the cement sector - significantly affect the rate of carbon leakage.

Suggested Citation

  • Elisabetta Allevi & Giorgia Oggioni & Rossana Riccardi & Marco Rocco, 2013. "A spatial competitive analysis: the carbon leakage effect on the cement industry under the European Emissions Trading Scheme," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 899, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
  • Handle: RePEc:bdi:wptemi:td_899_13
    as

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    File URL: http://www.bancaditalia.it/pubblicazioni/temi-discussione/2013/2013-0899/en_tema_899.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Pankaj Ghemawat & Catherine Thomas, 2008. "Strategic Interaction Across Countries and Multinational Agglomeration: An Application to the Cement Industry," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 54(12), pages 1980-1996, December.
    2. Szabo, Laszlo & Hidalgo, Ignacio & Ciscar, Juan Carlos & Soria, Antonio, 2006. "CO2 emission trading within the European Union and Annex B countries: the cement industry case," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 72-87, January.
    3. Meunier, Guy & Ponssard, Jean-Pierre, 2014. "Capacity decisions with demand fluctuations and carbon leakage," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 436-454.
    4. Jean Pierre Ponssard & Neil Walker, 2008. "EU emissions trading and the cement sector: a spatial competition analysis," Climate Policy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 8(5), pages 467-493, September.
    5. Guy Meunier & Jean-Pierre Ponssard, 2012. "A Sectoral Approach Balancing Global Efficiency and Equity," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 53(4), pages 533-552, December.
    6. Santamaría, Alberto & Linares, Pedro & Pintos, Pablo, 2014. "The effects of carbon prices and anti-leakage policies on selected industrial sectors in Spain – Cement, steel and oil refining," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 65(C), pages 708-717.
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    Cited by:

    1. Ivan Faiella & Alessandro Mistretta, 2014. "Firms' energy costs and competitiveness in Italy," Questioni di Economia e Finanza (Occasional Papers) 214, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    carbon leakage; cement sector; ETS; generalized Nash game;

    JEL classification:

    • C60 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling - - - General
    • D43 - Microeconomics - - Market Structure, Pricing, and Design - - - Oligopoly and Other Forms of Market Imperfection
    • D58 - Microeconomics - - General Equilibrium and Disequilibrium - - - Computable and Other Applied General Equilibrium Models
    • C61 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling - - - Optimization Techniques; Programming Models; Dynamic Analysis
    • Q50 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics - - - General

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