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The ECB monetary policy response to the Covid-19 crisis


  • Pablo Aguilar

    (Banco de España)

  • Óscar Arce

    (Banco de España)

  • Samuel Hurtado

    (Banco de España)

  • Jaime Martínez-Martín

    (Banco de España)

  • Galo Nuño

    (Banco de España)

  • Carlos Thomas

    (Banco de España)


The ECB has responded forcefully to the challenges posed by the COVID-19 crisis for the euro area economy. This paper reviews the different monetary policy measures adopted by the ECB since the COVID-19 outbreak and explains their rationale. It also looks at several analyses of the impact of some of the main measures on both the Spanish economy and that of the euro area as a whole.

Suggested Citation

  • Pablo Aguilar & Óscar Arce & Samuel Hurtado & Jaime Martínez-Martín & Galo Nuño & Carlos Thomas, 2020. "The ECB monetary policy response to the Covid-19 crisis," Occasional Papers 2026, Banco de España.
  • Handle: RePEc:bde:opaper:2026e

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Dimitri Vayanos & Jean‐Luc Vila, 2021. "A Preferred‐Habitat Model of the Term Structure of Interest Rates," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 89(1), pages 77-112, January.
    2. Holston, Kathryn & Laubach, Thomas & Williams, John C., 2017. "Measuring the natural rate of interest: International trends and determinants," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 108(S1), pages 59-75.
    3. Joseph Abadi & Markus Brunnermeier & Yann Koby, 2023. "The Reversal Interest Rate," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 113(8), pages 2084-2120, August.
    4. Gauti B. Eggertsson & Michael Woodford, 2003. "The Zero Bound on Interest Rates and Optimal Monetary Policy," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 34(1), pages 139-235.
    5. Gabriele Fiorentini & Alessandro Galesi & Gabriel Pérez-Quirós & Enrique Sentana, 2018. "The rise and fall of the natural interest rate," Working Papers 1822, Banco de España.
    6. Frank Smets & Rafael Wouters, 2007. "Shocks and Frictions in US Business Cycles: A Bayesian DSGE Approach," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 97(3), pages 586-606, June.
    7. Jef Boeckx & Maarten Dossche & Gert Peersman, 2017. "Effectiveness and Transmission of the ECB's Balance Sheet Policies," International Journal of Central Banking, International Journal of Central Banking, vol. 13(1), pages 297-333, February.
    8. Burriel, Pablo & Galesi, Alessandro, 2018. "Uncovering the heterogeneous effects of ECB unconventional monetary policies across euro area countries," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 101(C), pages 210-229.
    9. Leonardo Gambacorta & Boris Hofmann & Gert Peersman, 2014. "The Effectiveness of Unconventional Monetary Policy at the Zero Lower Bound: A Cross‐Country Analysis," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 46(4), pages 615-642, June.
    10. Mandler, Martin & Scharnagl, Michael, 2020. "Estimating the effects of the Eurosystem's asset purchase programme at the country level," Discussion Papers 29/2020, Deutsche Bundesbank.
    11. Lawrence H Summers, 2014. "U.S. Economic Prospects: Secular Stagnation, Hysteresis, and the Zero Lower Bound," Business Economics, Palgrave Macmillan;National Association for Business Economics, vol. 49(2), pages 65-73, April.
    12. Alessandro Galesi & Galo Nuño & Carlos Thomas, 2017. "The natural interest rate: concept, determinants and implications for monetary policy," Economic Bulletin, Banco de España, issue MAR.
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    Cited by:

    1. Wang, Hao & Xu, Ning & Yin, Haiyan & Ji, Hao, 2022. "The dynamic impact of monetary policy on financial stability in China after crises," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 75(C).
    2. Mauro Paoloni & Massimiliano Celli, 2023. "The Covid-19 Pandemic and the Eurozone: A Reconnaissance of E.U. Financial Assistance to Counteract the Coronavirus’s Perfect Storm," International Journal of Business and Management, Canadian Center of Science and Education, vol. 16(7), pages 1-72, February.
    3. Alejandro Buesa & Coral García & Iván Kataryniuk & César Martín-Machuca & Susana Moreno & Moritz Roth, 2020. "Brexit: situation and economic consequences," Economic Bulletin, Banco de España, issue 4/2020.
    4. Pana Alves & Lucio San Juan, 2021. "The impact of the COVID-19 health crisis on the housing market in Spain," Economic Bulletin, Banco de España, issue 2/2021.
    5. Eleni Argiri & Ifigeneia Skotida, 2021. "The 2021 review of the monetary policy strategy of the Eurosystem: an economy of forces," Economic Bulletin, Bank of Greece, issue 54, pages 23-57, December.
    6. Nelimarkka, Jaakko & Laine, Olli-Matti, 2021. "The effects of the ECB's pandemic-related monetary policy measures," BoF Economics Review 4/2021, Bank of Finland.

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    More about this item


    European Central Bank; asset purchases; refinancing operations;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • E44 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy
    • E52 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Monetary Policy
    • E58 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Central Banks and Their Policies

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