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Traffic Congestion and Accidents

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  • Schrage, Andrea

Abstract

Obstructions caused by accidents can trigger or exacerbate traffic congestion. This paper derives the efficient traffic pattern for a rush hour with congestion and accidents and the corresponding road toll. Compared to the model without accidents, where the toll equals external costs imposed on drivers using the road at the same time, a new insight arises: An optimal toll also internalizes the expected increase in future congestion costs. Since accidents affect more drivers if traffic volumes are rising than when they are declining, the efficient charge depends upon the demand for road use during the rest of the peak period. Verkehrsunfälle können Staus auslösen oder verschlimmern. In diesem Papier wird das effiziente Straßennutzungsmuster während einer Stoßzeit mit Staus und Unfällen sowie die entsprechende Straßennutzungsgebühr bestimmt. Verglichen mit einem deterministischen Modell ohne Unfälle, in dem die optimale Maut den externen Kosten entspricht, die gleichzeitig fahrenden Straßennutzern aufgebürdet werden, ergibt sich folgende neue Erkenntnis: Die optimale Gebühr internalisiert auch den erwarteten Anstieg späterer Staukosten. Da Unfälle bei zunehmender Straßennutzung mehr Fahrer betreffen als bei abnehmendem Verkehrsaufkommen, muss die effiziente Gebühr auch die verbleibende Verkehrsnachfrage über den Rest der Stoßzeit berücksichtigen.

Suggested Citation

  • Schrage, Andrea, 2006. "Traffic Congestion and Accidents," University of Regensburg Working Papers in Business, Economics and Management Information Systems 419, University of Regensburg, Department of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:bay:rdwiwi:736
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    File URL: https://epub.uni-regensburg.de/4535/1/Congestion_and_Accidents_WP.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Peirson, John & Skinner, Ian & Vickerman, Roger, 1998. "The Microeconomic Analysis of the External Costs of Road Accidents," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 65(259), pages 429-440, August.
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    3. Parry, Ian W. H., 2004. "Comparing alternative policies to reduce traffic accidents," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(2), pages 346-368, September.
    4. Arnott, R. & De Palma, A. & Lindseyt, R., 1995. "Recent Developments in the Bottleneck Model," Papers 9523, Paris X - Nanterre, U.F.R. de Sc. Ec. Gest. Maths Infor..
    5. Daniel Shefer & Piet Rietveld, 1997. "Congestion and Safety on Highways: Towards an Analytical Model," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 34(4), pages 679-692, April.
    6. Hau, Timothy D., 1992. "Economic fundamentals of road pricing : a diagrammatic analysis," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1070, The World Bank.
    7. Henderson, J. V., 1974. "Road congestion : A reconsideration of pricing theory," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 1(3), pages 346-365, July.
    8. Vickrey, William S, 1969. "Congestion Theory and Transport Investment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 59(2), pages 251-260, May.
    9. Dickerson, Andrew & Peirson, John & Vickerman, Roger, 2000. "Road Accidents and Traffic Flows: An Econometric Investigation," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 67(265), pages 101-121, February.
    10. Schade, Jens & Schlag, Bernhard, 2000. "Acceptability of Urban Transport Pricing," Research Reports 72, VATT Institute for Economic Research.
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    Cited by:

    1. Fosgerau, Mogens & Lindsey, Robin, 2013. "Trip-timing decisions with traffic incidents," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(5), pages 764-782.
    2. Foreman, Kate, 2016. "Crossing the bridge: The effects of time-varying tolls on curbing congestion," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 92(C), pages 76-94.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Verkehrsstau ; Verkehrsunfall ; Straßenbenutzungsgebühr;

    JEL classification:

    • H23 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Externalities; Redistributive Effects; Environmental Taxes and Subsidies
    • D62 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics - - - Externalities
    • R48 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Transportation Economics - - - Government Pricing and Policy
    • R41 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Transportation Economics - - - Transportation: Demand, Supply, and Congestion; Travel Time; Safety and Accidents; Transportation Noise

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