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Traffic Congestion and Accidents

  • Schrage, Andrea

Obstructions caused by accidents can trigger or exacerbate traffic congestion. This paper derives the efficient traffic pattern for a rush hour with congestion and accidents and the corresponding road toll. Compared to the model without accidents, where the toll equals external costs imposed on drivers using the road at the same time, a new insight arises: An optimal toll also internalizes the expected increase in future congestion costs. Since accidents affect more drivers if traffic volumes are rising than when they are declining, the efficient charge depends upon the demand for road use during the rest of the peak period. Verkehrsunfälle können Staus auslösen oder verschlimmern. In diesem Papier wird das effiziente Straßennutzungsmuster während einer Stoßzeit mit Staus und Unfällen sowie die entsprechende Straßennutzungsgebühr bestimmt. Verglichen mit einem deterministischen Modell ohne Unfälle, in dem die optimale Maut den externen Kosten entspricht, die gleichzeitig fahrenden Straßennutzern aufgebürdet werden, ergibt sich folgende neue Erkenntnis: Die optimale Gebühr internalisiert auch den erwarteten Anstieg späterer Staukosten. Da Unfälle bei zunehmender Straßennutzung mehr Fahrer betreffen als bei abnehmendem Verkehrsaufkommen, muss die effiziente Gebühr auch die verbleibende Verkehrsnachfrage über den Rest der Stoßzeit berücksichtigen.

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Paper provided by University of Regensburg, Department of Economics in its series University of Regensburg Working Papers in Business, Economics and Management Information Systems with number 419.

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Date of creation: 2006
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Handle: RePEc:bay:rdwiwi:736
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  1. Andrew Dickerson & John Peirson & Roger Vickerman, 1998. "Road Accidents and Traffic Flows: An Econometric Investigation," Studies in Economics 9809, School of Economics, University of Kent.
  2. Parry, Ian, 2003. "Comparing Alternative Policies to Reduce Traffic Accidents," Discussion Papers dp-03-07, Resources For the Future.
  3. Aaron S. Edlin & Pinar Karaca-Mandic, 2006. "The Accident Externality from Driving," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 114(5), pages 931-955, October.
  4. Vickrey, William S, 1969. "Congestion Theory and Transport Investment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 59(2), pages 251-60, May.
  5. Peirson, John & Skinner, Ian & Vickerman, Roger, 1998. "The Microeconomic Analysis of the External Costs of Road Accidents," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 65(259), pages 429-40, August.
  6. Arnott, R. & De Palma, A. & Lindseyt, R., 1995. "Recent Developments in the Bottleneck Model," Papers 9523, Paris X - Nanterre, U.F.R. de Sc. Ec. Gest. Maths Infor..
  7. repec:dgr:uvatin:19990091 is not listed on IDEAS
  8. Jens Schade & Bernhard Schlag, 2000. "Acceptability of Urban Transport Pricing," Research Reports 72, Government Institute for Economic Research Finland (VATT).
  9. Hau, Timothy D., 1992. "Economic fundamentals of road pricing : a diagrammatic analysis," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1070, The World Bank.
  10. Henderson, J. V., 1974. "Road congestion : A reconsideration of pricing theory," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 1(3), pages 346-365, July.
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