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Time, speeds, flows and densities in static models of road traffic congestion and congestion pricing

  • Erik Teodoor Verhoef

    ()

This paper deals with some of the features of static models of road traffic congestion that have caused much debate in the literature. It first focuses on the difficulties arising with the backward-bending cost curve defined over traffic flows in the context of `continuous congestion'. The relevance of the backward-bending segment of this curve is questioned by demonstrating that the `equilibria' on this segment of the cost curve are dynamically infeasible. Next, the implications for static models of `peak congestion' are considered. In doing so, attention is paid also to the implicit assumptions, particularly on the nature of scheduling costs, that are necessary to render static models of peak congestion internally consistent. The paper ends with a brief discussion of the implications for dynamic models of peak congestion.

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File URL: http://www-sre.wu-wien.ac.at/ersa/ersaconfs/ersa98/papers/156.pdf
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Paper provided by European Regional Science Association in its series ERSA conference papers with number ersa98p156.

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Date of creation: Aug 1998
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Handle: RePEc:wiw:wiwrsa:ersa98p156
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  1. Arnott, Richard & de Palma, Andre & Lindsey, Robin, 1993. "A Structural Model of Peak-Period Congestion: A Traffic Bottleneck with Elastic Demand," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 83(1), pages 161-79, March.
  2. Braid, Ralph M., 1996. "Peak-Load Pricing of a Transportation Route with an Unpriced Substitute," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(2), pages 179-197, September.
  3. Braid, Ralph M., 1989. "Uniform versus peak-load pricing of a bottleneck with elastic demand," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(3), pages 320-327, November.
  4. Small, Kenneth A. & Gomez-Ilbanez, Jose A., 1998. "Road Pricing for Congestion Management: The Transition from Theory to Policy," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt8kk909p1, University of California Transportation Center.
  5. Vickrey, William S, 1969. "Congestion Theory and Transport Investment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 59(2), pages 251-60, May.
  6. Verhoef, Erik T. & Emmerink, Richard H. M. & Nijkamp, Peter & Rietveld, Piet, 1996. "Information provision, flat and fine congestion tolling and the efficiency of road usage," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(5), pages 505-529, August.
  7. Lave, Charles, 1994. "The demand curve under road pricing and the problem of political feasibility," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 28(2), pages 83-91, March.
  8. repec:dgr:uvatin:19980030 is not listed on IDEAS
  9. Mun, Se-il, 1994. "Traffic jams and the congestion toll," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 28(5), pages 365-375, October.
  10. Henderson, J. V., 1974. "Road congestion : A reconsideration of pricing theory," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 1(3), pages 346-365, July.
  11. Chu Xuehao, 1995. "Endogenous Trip Scheduling: The Henderson Approach Reformulated and Compared with the Vickrey Approach," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 324-343, May.
  12. Arnott, R. & De Palma, A. & Lindseyt, R., 1995. "Recent Developments in the Bottleneck Model," Papers 9523, Paris X - Nanterre, U.F.R. de Sc. Ec. Gest. Maths Infor..
  13. Verhoef, Erik, 1995. "The demand curve under road pricing and the problem of political feasibility: A comment," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 29(6), pages 459-465, November.
  14. Moshe Ben-Akiva & Andre de Palma & Pavlos Kanaroglou, 1984. "Dynamic Model of Peak Period Traffic Congestion with Elastic Arrival Rates," Working Papers 588, Queen's University, Department of Economics.
  15. Verhoef, Erik & Nijkamp, Peter & Rietveld, Piet, 1996. "Second-Best Congestion Pricing: The Case of an Untolled Alternative," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(3), pages 279-302, November.
  16. Evans, Alan W, 1992. "Road Congestion: The Diagrammatic Analysis: Comment," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 100(1), pages 211-17, February.
  17. Henderson, J. Vernon, 1981. "The economics of staggered work hours," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(3), pages 349-364, May.
  18. Verhoef, Erik T., 2001. "An Integrated Dynamic Model of Road Traffic Congestion Based on Simple Car-Following Theory: Exploring Hypercongestion," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(3), pages 505-542, May.
  19. De Meza, David & Gould, J R, 1987. "Free Access versus Private Property in a Resource: Income Distributions Compared," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 95(6), pages 1317-25, December.
  20. Lave, Charles, 1994. "The Demand Curve Under Road Pricing and the Problem of Political Feasibility," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt5165m7jr, University of California Transportation Center.
  21. Verhoef Erik T., 1997. "Externalities," Serie Research Memoranda 0031, VU University Amsterdam, Faculty of Economics, Business Administration and Econometrics.
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