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Time, speeds, flows and densities in static models of road traffic congestion and congestion pricing

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  • Verhoef, Erik T.

Abstract

This paper deals with some of the features of static models of road traffic congestion that have caused much debate in the literature. It first focuses on the difficulties arising with the backward-bending cost curve defined over traffic flows in the context of `continuous congestion'. The relevance of the backward-bending segment of this curve is questioned by demonstrating that the `equilibria' on this segment of the cost curve are dynamically infeasible. Next, the implications for static models of `peak congestion' are considered. In doing so, attention is paid also to the implicit assumptions, particularly on the nature of scheduling costs, that are necessary to render static models of peak congestion internally consistent. The paper ends with a brief discussion of the implications for dynamic models of peak congestion.
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  • Verhoef, Erik T., 1999. "Time, speeds, flows and densities in static models of road traffic congestion and congestion pricing," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 341-369, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:regeco:v:29:y:1999:i:3:p:341-369
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Arnott, Richard & Inci, Eren, 2010. "The stability of downtown parking and traffic congestion," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(3), pages 260-276, November.
    2. Erik T. Verhoef, 2000. "Second-Best Congestion Pricing in General Networks - Algorithms for Finding Second-Best Optimal Toll Levels and Toll Points," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 00-084/3, Tinbergen Institute.
    3. Verhoef, Erik T., 2003. "Inside the queue:: hypercongestion and road pricing in a continuous time-continuous place model of traffic congestion," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(3), pages 531-565, November.
    4. Verhoef, Erik T., 2002. "Second-best congestion pricing in general static transportation networks with elastic demands," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 281-310, May.
    5. Verhoef, Erik T., 2001. "An Integrated Dynamic Model of Road Traffic Congestion Based on Simple Car-Following Theory: Exploring Hypercongestion," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(3), pages 505-542, May.
    6. C. Robin Lindsey & Erik T. Verhoef, 1999. "Congestion Modelling," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 99-091/3, Tinbergen Institute.
    7. Arnott, Richard, 2013. "A bathtub model of downtown traffic congestion," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(C), pages 110-121.
    8. Tsekeris, Theodore & Geroliminis, Nikolas, 2013. "City size, network structure and traffic congestion," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(C), pages 1-14.
    9. Erik T. Verhoef, 1998. "An Integrated Dynamic Model of Road Traffic Congestion based on Simple Car-Following Theory," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 98-030/3, Tinbergen Institute.
    10. Verhoef, Erik Teodoor, 2000. "The Generalized Second-Best Network Congestion Pricing Problem," ERSA conference papers ersa00p336, European Regional Science Association.
    11. Gonzales, Eric J., 2015. "Coordinated pricing for cars and transit in cities with hypercongestion," Economics of Transportation, Elsevier, vol. 4(1), pages 64-81.
    12. Liu, Ronghui & May, Tony & Shepherd, Simon, 2011. "On the fundamental diagram and supply curves for congested urban networks," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 45(9), pages 951-965, November.
    13. Verhoef, Erik T. & Rouwendal, Jan, 2004. "A behavioural model of traffic congestion: Endogenizing speed choice, traffic safety and time losses," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(3), pages 408-434, November.
    14. Berliant, Marcus, 2017. "Commuting and internet traffic congestion," MPRA Paper 77378, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    15. Button, Kenneth, 2004. "1. The Rationale For Road Pricing: Standard Theory And Latest Advances," Research in Transportation Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 3-25, January.
    16. Cameron Hepburn, 2006. "Regulation by Prices, Quantities, or Both: A Review of Instrument Choice," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 22(2), pages 226-247, Summer.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • R41 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Transportation Economics - - - Transportation: Demand, Supply, and Congestion; Travel Time; Safety and Accidents; Transportation Noise
    • R48 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Transportation Economics - - - Government Pricing and Policy
    • D62 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics - - - Externalities

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