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Pakistan’s Tax Gap: Estimates By Tax Calculation and Methodology

This report provides estimates of Pakistan’s tax gap by type of tax and describes the methodologies and data used to produce these estimates. A country’s tax gap is the amount of tax that goes uncollected due to non-compliance with the tax law. For estimation purposes, the operational definition of the tax gap is the difference between potential and actual federal tax revenue, where potential revenue is the amount of tax that the government would collect if everyone fully complied with the tax law. It is a simple matter to get actual tax collections by type of tax, so the trick to estimating a country’s tax gap is to obtain a reasonably accurate measure of potential tax revenue. Our basic strategy is to use micro-simulation models to estimate the potential revenues from Pakistan’s federal taxes of which there are only a hand full. Such modeling requires micro-economic data with information about the relevant tax bases and a tax calculator to simulate tax liabilities by type of tax. The advantage of this approach is the detailed information that it provides on the rate of compliance by type of tax which should be helpful in targeting scarce tax enforcement resources and in evaluating tax policy reforms.

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File URL: http://icepp.gsu.edu/sites/default/files/documents/icepp/wp/ispwp0811.pdf
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Paper provided by International Center for Public Policy, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University in its series International Center for Public Policy Working Paper Series, at AYSPS, GSU with number paper0811.

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Length: 78 pages
Date of creation: 01 Dec 2008
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:ays:ispwps:paper0811
Contact details of provider: Phone: 404-413-0235
Fax: 404-413-0244
Web page: http://aysps.gsu.edu/isp/index.html

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  1. Feinstein, Jonathan S, 1999. "Approaches for Estimating Noncompliance: Examples from Federal Taxation in the United States," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 109(456), pages F360-69, June.
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  3. Richard M. Bird & Jorge Martinez-Vazquez & Benno Torgler, 2004. "Societal Institutions and Tax Effort in Developing Countries," International Center for Public Policy Working Paper Series, at AYSPS, GSU paper0406, International Center for Public Policy, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University.
  4. Kemal, M. Ali, 2007. "Fresh Assessment of the Underground Economy and Tax Evasion in Pakistan: Causes, Consequences, and Linkages with the Formal Economy," MPRA Paper 2226, University Library of Munich, Germany.
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  6. Jorge Martinez-Vazquez & Mark Rider, 2003. "Multiple Modes of Tax Evasion: Theory and Evidence from the TCMP," International Center for Public Policy Working Paper Series, at AYSPS, GSU paper0306, International Center for Public Policy, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University.
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  18. Umir Wahid & Sally Wallace, 2008. "Incidence of Taxes in Pakistan: Primer and Estimates," International Center for Public Policy Working Paper Series, at AYSPS, GSU paper0813, International Center for Public Policy, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University.
  19. Tanzi, Vito, 1999. "Uses and Abuses of Estimates of the Underground Economy," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 109(456), pages F338-47, June.
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