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Tax Morale in Asian Countries

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  • Benno Torgler

Abstract

This paper analyses tax morale in several Asian countries. The descriptive analysis indicates that tax morale is very low in the Philippines and relatively high in Japan, China, and Bangladesh. In general Asia has a higher tax morale than OECD countries, which might indicate cultural differences. The paper also analyses tax morale as a dependent variable and thus gives answers to what shapes tax morale. Pooling the Asian countries we find, e.g., that trust in the government and the legal system have a positive effect on tax morale. These results remain robust for India and Japan in a time series analysis.

Suggested Citation

  • Benno Torgler, 2004. "Tax Morale in Asian Countries," CREMA Working Paper Series 2004-02, Center for Research in Economics, Management and the Arts (CREMA).
  • Handle: RePEc:cra:wpaper:2004-02
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    Cited by:

    1. Colin C. Williams & Ioana A. Horodnic, 2015. "Explaining and tackling the shadow economy in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania: a tax morale approach," Baltic Journal of Economics, Baltic International Centre for Economic Policy Studies, vol. 15(2), pages 81-98.
    2. Boockmann, Bernhard & Rincke, Johannes, 2005. "Wirksamkeit der Bekämpfung der Schwarzarbeit durch die "Finanzkontrolle Schwarzarbeit": Empirische Untersuchung der Entwicklung der Schwarzarbeit und des hierauf bezogenen Bewusstseins- und ," ZEW Expertises, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research, number 111459.
    3. Benno Torgler & Christoph A. Schaltegger, 2005. "Tax Morale and Fiscal Policy," CREMA Working Paper Series 2005-30, Center for Research in Economics, Management and the Arts (CREMA).
    4. Cyan, Musharraf R. & Koumpias, Antonios M. & Martinez-Vazquez, Jorge, 2016. "The determinants of tax morale in Pakistan," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 23-34.
    5. Cevat Bilgin, 2014. "Determinants of tax morale in Spain and Turkey: an empirical analysis," European Journal of Government and Economics, Europa Grande, vol. 3(1), pages 60-74, June.
    6. Lars Gläser & Martin Halla, 2008. "Die EU-Zinsenrichtlinie: Ein Schuss in den Ofen?," Perspektiven der Wirtschaftspolitik, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 9(1), pages 83-101, February.
    7. Zaklan, Georg & Lima, F.W.S. & Westerhoff, Frank, 2008. "Controlling tax evasion fluctuations," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 387(23), pages 5857-5861.
    8. Migheli, Matteo, 2014. "Preferences for government interventions in the economy: Does gender matter?," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 39-48.
    9. Benno Torgler & Christoph A. Schaltegger, 2006. "Tax Morale: A Survey with a Special Focus on Switzerland," Swiss Journal of Economics and Statistics (SJES), Swiss Society of Economics and Statistics (SSES), vol. 142(III), pages 395-425, September.
    10. Ali, Merima & Fjeldstad, Odd-Helge & Sjursen, Ingrid Hoem, 2014. "To Pay or Not to Pay? Citizens’ Attitudes Toward Taxation in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, and South Africa," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 64(C), pages 828-842.
    11. Gebhard Kirchgässner, 2011. "Tax Morale, Tax Evasion and the Shadow Economy," Chapters,in: Handbook on the Shadow Economy, chapter 10 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    12. Philipp Doerrenberg & Andreas Peichl, 2013. "Progressive taxation and tax morale," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 155(3), pages 293-316, June.
    13. Maria Arezzo, 2014. "Social Capital and Undeclared Work: An Empirical Analysis in Italy from 1998 to 2008," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, pages 695-709.
    14. Mihai Mutascu, 2013. "Tax revenues under World Religions: a Panel Analysis," Economic Research Guardian, Weissberg Publishing, vol. 3(2), pages 154-168, December.
    15. Luca Andriani, 2013. "Is Acting Prosocially Beneficial for the Credit Market?," Management Working Papers 4, Birkbeck Department of Management, revised Jun 2013.
    16. repec:eee:soceco:v:70:y:2017:i:c:p:10-22 is not listed on IDEAS
    17. Christoph A. Schaltegger, 2011. "Size, Development and Perception of the Shadow Economy in Switzerland," Chapters,in: Handbook on the Shadow Economy, chapter 4 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    18. Gebhard Kirchgässner, 2007. "Direkte Demokratie, Steuermoral und Steuerhinterziehung: Erfahrungen aus der Schweiz," Perspektiven der Wirtschaftspolitik, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 8(1), pages 38-64, January.
    19. Makoto Hasegawa & Jefrey L. Hoopes & Ryo Ishida & Joel Slemrod, 2013. "The Effect of Public Disclosure on Reported Taxable Income: Evidence From Individuals and Corporations in Japan," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 66(3), pages 571-608, September.
    20. Lago-Peñas, Ignacio & Lago-Peñas, Santiago, 2010. "The determinants of tax morale in comparative perspective: Evidence from European countries," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 26(4), pages 441-453, December.
    21. Mauro Marè & Antonello Motroni & Francesco Porcelli, 2015. "Family Ties and Underground Economy," Working papers 16, Società Italiana di Economia Pubblica.
    22. repec:eee:joepsy:v:62:y:2017:i:c:p:284-294 is not listed on IDEAS
    23. Torgler, Benno, 2011. "Tax morale and compliance : review of evidence and case studies for Europe," Policy Research Working Paper Series 5922, The World Bank.
    24. Robina Ather Ahmed & Mark Rider, 2008. "Pakistan’s Tax Gap: Estimates By Tax Calculation and Methodology," International Center for Public Policy Working Paper Series, at AYSPS, GSU paper0811, International Center for Public Policy, Andrew Young School of Policy Studies, Georgia State University.
    25. Hammar, Henrik & Jagers, Sverker C. & Nordblom, Katarina, 2009. "Perceived tax evasion and the importance of trust," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 238-245, March.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    tax morale; tax evasion; shadow economy;

    JEL classification:

    • H26 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Tax Evasion and Avoidance
    • K42 - Law and Economics - - Legal Procedure, the Legal System, and Illegal Behavior - - - Illegal Behavior and the Enforcement of Law

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