GINI Country Report: Growing Inequalities and their Impacts in the Baltic States Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania
The macroeconomic environment in the Baltic States during 1980-2012 has been especially dynamic having strong effects also on the changes in inequality. The beginning of transition was characterized by output decline deeper than in the other Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries. While later the average growth has been rather strong, also the volatility across the business cycles has been strong, as shown by the highest growth rates in European Union during 2004-2007 and the deepest GDP decline in 2009. The macroeconomic dynamics, like transition and business cycles, have had profound impact on the demographic processes: while the beginning of transition marked significant population decline due to declining birth rates, increasing mortality and emigration, the 2000-s saw some stabilization especially in Estonia, but the growing emigration since joining the European Union is an issue especially in Latvia and Lithuania.
|Date of creation:||Sep 2013|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Nieuwe Prinsengracht 130, 1018 VZ Amsterdam|
Web page: http://www.uva-aias.net
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Raul Eamets & Urmas Varblane & Kaja Sostra, 2003. "External Macroeconomic Shocks and the Estonian economy: How did the Russian Financial Crisis affect Estonian Unemployment and Foreign Trade?," Baltic Journal of Economics, Baltic International Centre for Economic Policy Studies, vol. 3(2), pages 5-24, July.
- Tiiu Paas & Marit Hinnosaar & Jaan Masso & Orsolya Szirko, 2004. "Social Protection Systems In The Baltic States," University of Tartu - Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Working Paper Series 26, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, University of Tartu (Estonia).
- Raul Eamets, 2004. "Labour market flows and adjustment to macroeconomic shocks in the Baltic States," Post-Communist Economies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(1), pages 47-71.
- Mihails Hazans & Ija Trapeznikova & Olga Rastrigina, 2008. "Ethnic and parental effects on schooling outcomes before and during the transition: evidence from the Baltic countries," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 21(3), pages 719-749, July.
- Azacis, Helmuts & Gillman, Max, 2010.
"Flat tax reform: The Baltics 2000-2007,"
Journal of Macroeconomics,
Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 692-708, June.
- Helmuts Azacis & Max Gillman, 2008. "Flat Tax Reform.The Baltics 2000 – 2007," IEHAS Discussion Papers 0825, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
- Azacis, Helmuts & Gillman, Max, 2008. "Baltic Tax Reform," Cardiff Economics Working Papers E2008/6, Cardiff University, Cardiff Business School, Economics Section, revised Oct 2008.
- Karsten Staehr, 2010. "The global financial crisis and public finances in the New EU Countries from Central and Eastern Europe," Bank of Estonia Working Papers wp2010-02, Bank of Estonia, revised 04 Feb 2010.
- Mihails Hazans, 2005.
"Looking for the Workforce - the Elderly, Discouraged Workers, Minorities, and Students in the Baltic Labour Markets,"
ERSA conference papers
ersa05p344, European Regional Science Association.
- Mihails Hazans, 2007. "Looking for the workforce: the elderly, discouraged workers, minorities, and students in the Baltic labour markets," Empirica, Springer, vol. 34(4), pages 319-349, September.
- Mihails Hazans, 2005. "Looking for the Workforce: the Elderly, Discouraged Workers, Minorities, and Students in the Baltic Labour Markets," Labor and Demography 0507008, EconWPA.
- Hazans, Mihails, 2005. "Unemployment and the earnings structure in Latvia," Policy Research Working Paper Series 3504, The World Bank.
- Hossain, Ferdaus & Jensen, Helen H., 1999.
"Economic Reform and Inequality: Evidence from Lithuania,"
Staff General Research Papers Archive
1755, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
- Ferdaus Hossain & Helen Jensen, 1999. "Economic reform and inequality: evidence from Lithuania," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 6(8), pages 491-495.
- Jaan Masso & Kerly Krillo, 2011. "Mixed Adjustment Forms and Inequality Effects in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania," Chapters, in: Work Inequalities in the Crisis, chapter 2 Edward Elgar Publishing.
- Raul Eamets & Kadri Ukrainski, 2000. "Hidden Unemployment in Estonia: Experience from the Early Years of Transition (1989-1996)," Post-Communist Economies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(4), pages 463-484.
- Rose, Richard & Shin, Doh Chull, 2001. "Democratization Backwards: The Problem of Third-Wave Democracies," British Journal of Political Science, Cambridge University Press, vol. 31(02), pages 331-354, April.
- Tiiu Paas & Vivika Halapuu, 2012. "Determinants Of People’S Attitudes Towards Immigrants In Europe," University of Tartu - Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Working Paper Series 88, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, University of Tartu (Estonia).
- Zuzana Brixiova & Laura Vartia & Andreas Woergoetter, 2009.
"Capital Inflows, Household Debt And The Boom Bust Cycle In Estonia,"
William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series
wp965, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
- Zuzana Brixiova & Laura Vartia & Andreas Wörgötter, 2009. "Capital Inflows, Household Debt and the Boom-bust Cycle in Estonia," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 700, OECD Publishing.
- Jaan Masso & Kerly Espenberg, 2013. "Early application of fiscal austerity measures in the Baltic states," Chapters, in: Public Sector Shock, chapter 3, pages 84-133 Edward Elgar Publishing.
- Eric M. Uslaner, 2011.
"Corruption and Inequality,"
CESifo DICE Report,
Ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 9(2), pages 20-24, 07.
- Tiiu Paas & Raul Eamets & Jaan Masso & Marit Room, 2003. "Labour Market Flexibility And Migration In The Baltic States: Macro Evidences," University of Tartu - Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Working Paper Series 16, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, University of Tartu (Estonia).
- Tiiu Paas & Egle Tafenau & Nancy J. Scannell, 2008.
"Gravity Equation Analysis in the Context of International Trade: Model Specification Implications in the Case of the European Union,"
Eastern European Economics,
M.E. Sharpe, Inc., vol. 46(5), pages 92-113, September.
- Tiiu Paas & Egle Tafenau & Nancy J. Scannell, 2008. "Gravity Equation Analysis in the Context of International Trade: Model Specification Implications in the Case of the European Union," Eastern European Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 46(5), pages 92-113, September.
- Raul Eamets & Epp Kalaste, 2004. "The Lack of Wage Setting Power of Estonian Trade Unions?," Baltic Journal of Economics, Baltic International Centre for Economic Policy Studies, vol. 5(1), pages 44-60, December.
- Kadri Ukrainski & Raul Eamets, 2004. "Hidden Unemployment and Macroeconomic Shocks in Estonia (1997-2000): Empirical Evidence from Russian Financial Crises," DEGIT Conference Papers c009_036, DEGIT, Dynamics, Economic Growth, and International Trade.
- Kristjan-Olari Leping & Ott Toomet, 2007. "Ethnic Wage Gap And Political Break-Ups: Estonia During Political And Economic Transition," University of Tartu - Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Working Paper Series 53, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, University of Tartu (Estonia).
- FUSCO Alessio & GUIO Anne-Catherine & MARLIER Eric, 2011. "Income poverty and material deprivation in European countries," LISER Working Paper Series 2011-04, LISER.
- Callan, Tim & Leventi, Chrysa & Levy, Horacio & Matsaganis, Manos & Paulus, Alari & Sutherland, Holly, 2011. "The distributional effects of austerity measures: a comparison of six EU countries," EUROMOD Working Papers EM6/11, EUROMOD at the Institute for Social and Economic Research.
- Hazans, Mihails & Philips, Kaia, 2011. "The Post-Enlargement Migration Experience in the Baltic Labor Markets," IZA Discussion Papers 5878, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Ellman, Michael, 1997. "The Political Economy of Transformation," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 13(2), pages 23-32, Summer.
- Brainerd, Elizabeth, 1998. "Winners and Losers in Russia's Economic Transition," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(5), pages 1094-1116, December.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:aia:ginicr:baltics. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Wiemer Salverda)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.