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Flat tax reform: The Baltics 2000-2007

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  • Azacis, Helmuts
  • Gillman, Max

Abstract

The paper presents an endogenous growth economy with a representation of the tax rate system in the Baltic countries. Assuming that government spending is a given fraction of output, the paper shows how a flat tax system balanced between labor and corporate tax rates can be second best optimal. It then computes how actual Baltic tax reforms from 2000 to 2007 affect the growth rate and welfare, including transition dynamics. Comparing the actual reform effects to hypothetical tax experiments, it results that equal flat tax rates on personal and corporate income would have increased welfare in all three Baltic countries by more than the actual reforms. Experiments show that movement towards a more equal balance between labor and capital tax rates, through changing just one tax rate, achieve almost as high or higher utility gains as in actual law for all three countries.

Suggested Citation

  • Azacis, Helmuts & Gillman, Max, 2010. "Flat tax reform: The Baltics 2000-2007," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 692-708, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jmacro:v:32:y:2010:i:2:p:692-708
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    Cited by:

    1. Vasilev, Aleksandar, 2015. "Welfare gains from the adoption of proportional taxation in a general-equilibrium model with a grey economy: the case of Bulgaria's 2008 flat tax reform," EconStor Open Access Articles and Book Chapters, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, pages 169-185.
    2. Saeed Solaymani, 2020. "Assessing the economic and social impacts of fiscal policies: Evidence from recent Malaysian tax adjustments," Journal of Economic Studies, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 47(3), pages 671-694, March.
    3. Horváth, Michal & Senaj, Matúš & Siebertová, Zuzana & Švarda, Norbert & Valachyová, Jana, 2019. "The end of the flat tax experiment in Slovakia: An evaluation using behavioural microsimulation in a dynamic macroeconomic framework," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 80(C), pages 171-184.
    4. Anne Lauringson, 2011. "Unemployment Benefits In A Period Of Crisis: The Effect On Unemployment Duration," University of Tartu - Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Working Paper Series 82, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, University of Tartu (Estonia).
    5. Jaan Masso & Jaanika Meriküll & Priit Vahter, 2011. "Gross Profit Taxation Versus Distributed Profit Taxation And Firm Performance: Effects Of Estonia’S Corporate Income Tax Reform," University of Tartu - Faculty of Economics and Business Administration Working Paper Series 81, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, University of Tartu (Estonia).
    6. Aleksandar Vasilev, 2016. "Progressive taxation and (in)stability in an endogenous growth model with human capital accumulation," Journal of Economics and Econometrics, Economics and Econometrics Society, vol. 59(2), pages 1-15.
    7. Michal Horvath & Matus Senaj & Zuzana Siebertova & Norbert Svarda, 2015. "The End of the Flat Tax Experiment in Slovakia," Discussion Papers 15/12, Department of Economics, University of York.
    8. Norbert Švarda & Jana Valachyová & Matúš Senaj & Michal Horváth & Zuzana Siebertová, 2018. "The end of the flat tax experiment in Slovakia: An evaluation using behavioural microsimulation linked with a dynamic macroeconomic framework," Discussion Papers 50, Central European Labour Studies Institute (CELSI).
    9. Max Gillman, 2020. "Technical Appendix: “Income Tax Evasion: Tax Elasticity, Welfare, and Revenueâ€," Working Papers 1018, University of Missouri-St. Louis, Department of Economics.
    10. Vasilev, Aleksandar, 2015. "The welfare effect of flat income tax reform: the case of Bulgaria," EconStor Open Access Articles and Book Chapters, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, pages 205-220.
    11. Max Gillman, 2021. "Income tax evasion: tax elasticity, welfare, and revenue," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 28(3), pages 533-566, June.
    12. Michal Horvath & Matus Senaj & Zuzana Siebertova & Norbert Svarda & Jana Valachyova, 2018. "Evaluating the Aggregate Effects of Tax and Benefit Reforms," Working Papers Working Paper No. 1/2018, Council for Budget Responsibility.
    13. Vasilev, Aleksandar, 2016. "Progressive taxation and (in)stability in an endogenous growth model with human capital accumulation: the case of Bulgaria," EconStor Preprints 144212, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics.
    14. Di Nola, Alessandro & Kocharkov, Georgi & Vasilev, Aleksandar, 2016. "Productivity, Taxation and Evasion: A Quantitative Exploration of the Determinants of the Informal Economy," EconStor Preprints 144164, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics.
    15. Jaan Masso & K. Espenberg & Anu Masso & I. Mierina & Kaia Philips, 2013. "GINI Country Report: Growing Inequalities and their Impacts in the Baltic States Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania," GINI Country Reports baltics, AIAS, Amsterdam Institute for Advanced Labour Studies.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Tax reform Endogenous growth Transitional dynamics Flat taxes;

    JEL classification:

    • E13 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - General Aggregative Models - - - Neoclassical
    • H20 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - General
    • O11 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Macroeconomic Analyses of Economic Development
    • O14 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Industrialization; Manufacturing and Service Industries; Choice of Technology

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