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Economic Development and Food Demand Changes: Production and Management Implications


  • Rask, Norman
  • Rask, Kolleen


Per capita food consumption and production changes during economic development are analyzed using a resource-based cereal equivalent measure. Diet up-grades to livestock products during economic development contribute to an increase in per capita food resource use by a factor of five or more. Food consumption changes are generally consistent across countries and are only marginally affected by a country’s food production resource base (land). Food consumption increases tend to exceed food production increases in early stages of development, leading to food import needs. In later stages of development, per capita food consumption stabilizes. Continued increases in production allow the closing of the consumption-production gap for some countries at high income levels. Consumption of pork and poultry meat show the largest percentage increase during economic development; however, beef and dairy products are less efficient in resource use and therefore command a majority of the productive resources for livestock production at all income levels.
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Suggested Citation

  • Rask, Norman & Rask, Kolleen, 2005. "Economic Development and Food Demand Changes: Production and Management Implications," 15th Congress, Campinas SP, Brazil, August 14-19, 2005 24266, International Farm Management Association.
  • Handle: RePEc:ags:ifma05:24266

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Kolleen Rask & Norman Rask, 2004. "Transition Economies and Globalization: Food System Asymmetries on the Path to Free Markets," Working Papers 0410, College of the Holy Cross, Department of Economics.
    2. Yotopoulos, Pan A, 1985. "Middle-Income Classes and Food Crises: The "New" Food-Feed Competition," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 33(3), pages 463-483, April.
    3. Kolleen Rask & Norman Rask, 2004. "Reaching Turning Points in Economic Transition: Adjustments to Distortions in Resource-based Consumption of Food," Comparative Economic Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Association for Comparative Economic Studies, vol. 46(4), pages 542-569, December.
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    More about this item


    Demand and Price Analysis; International Development;

    JEL classification:

    • Q18 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Agricultural Policy; Food Policy
    • O13 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Agriculture; Natural Resources; Environment; Other Primary Products


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