IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Impact of Contract Farming on Smallholder Poultry Farmers' Income in Kenya


  • Wainaina, Priscilla W.
  • Okello, Julius Juma
  • Nzuma, Jonathan M.


Contract farming is a form of vertical coordination largely aimed at correcting the market failure associated with spot markets that arise due to imperfect information. However the impact of contract farming on the welfare of smallholder farmers in Kenya is not well understood. While some authors have argued that contact farming improves access to ready markets by smallholder farmers, other studies have suggested that contract farming lowers the incomes of smallholder farmers because the contractors wield greater market power over the farmers. Consequently, it is seen as a blessing by some and a necessary evil by others. This study uses a propensity score matching technique to shed light on the impact of contract farming on smallholder farmers. The study also examines the conditioners of participation in contract farming. It uses data collected from 180 smallholder poultry farmers stratified by participation in contract production. The study finds that, on average, contracted farmers earned more net revenue per bird compared to the independent farmers, by approximately 27 percent, and as such participating in contract farming could improve the welfare of these small holder poultry farmers. This finding suggests that getting smallholder commercial poultry farmers to participate in contract farming can help improve their welfare through increasing the net revenues from these birds and thereof incomes.

Suggested Citation

  • Wainaina, Priscilla W. & Okello, Julius Juma & Nzuma, Jonathan M., 2012. "Impact of Contract Farming on Smallholder Poultry Farmers' Income in Kenya," 2012 Conference, August 18-24, 2012, Foz do Iguacu, Brazil 126196, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
  • Handle: RePEc:ags:iaae12:126196
    DOI: 10.22004/ag.econ.126196

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Liane Faltermeier & Awudu Abdulai, 2009. "The impact of water conservation and intensification technologies: empirical evidence for rice farmers in Ghana," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 40(3), pages 365-379, May.
    2. Rehber, Erkan, 1998. "Vertical Integration In Agriculture And Contract Farming," Working Papers 25991, Regional Research Project NE-165 Private Strategies, Public Policies, and Food System Performance.
    3. Birthal, Pratap S. & Joshi, P. K. & Gulati, Ashok, 2005. "Vertical coordination in high-value commodities," MTID discussion papers 85, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    4. Judy L. Baker, 2000. "Evaluating the Impact of Development Projects on Poverty : A Handbook for Practitioners," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 13949, June.
    5. Miyata, Sachiko & Minot, Nicholas & Hu, Dinghuan, 2009. "Impact of Contract Farming on Income: Linking Small Farmers, Packers, and Supermarkets in China," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(11), pages 1781-1790, November.
    6. Akhter Ali & Awudu Abdulai, 2010. "The Adoption of Genetically Modified Cotton and Poverty Reduction in Pakistan," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 61(1), pages 175-192, February.
    7. Warning, Matthew & Key, Nigel, 2002. "The Social Performance and Distributional Consequences of Contract Farming: An Equilibrium Analysis of the Arachide de Bouche Program in Senegal," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 30(2), pages 255-263, February.
    8. Becerril, Javier & Abdulai, Awudu, 2010. "The Impact of Improved Maize Varieties on Poverty in Mexico: A Propensity Score-Matching Approach," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 38(7), pages 1024-1035, July.
    9. Minot, Nicholas, 1986. "Contract Farming and Its Effect on Small Farmers in Less Developed Countries," Food Security International Development Working Papers 54740, Michigan State University, Department of Agricultural, Food, and Resource Economics.
    10. Caliendo, Marco & Kopeinig, Sabine, 2005. "Some Practical Guidance for the Implementation of Propensity Score Matching," IZA Discussion Papers 1588, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    11. Singh, Sukhpal, 2002. "Contracting Out Solutions: Political Economy of Contract Farming in the Indian Punjab," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 30(9), pages 1621-1638, September.
    12. Phil Simmons & Paul Winters & Ian Patrick, 2005. "An analysis of contract farming in East Java, Bali, and Lombok, Indonesia," Agricultural Economics, International Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 33(s3), pages 513-525, November.
    13. Marco Caliendo & Sabine Kopeinig, 2008. "Some Practical Guidance For The Implementation Of Propensity Score Matching," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 22(1), pages 31-72, February.
    14. Edwin Leuven & Barbara Sianesi, 2003. "PSMATCH2: Stata module to perform full Mahalanobis and propensity score matching, common support graphing, and covariate imbalance testing," Statistical Software Components S432001, Boston College Department of Economics, revised 01 Feb 2018.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Xolile Mamba, Tangetile, 2016. "The role of contracts in improving access to credit in the smallholder livestock sector of Swaziland," Research Theses 243472, Collaborative Masters Program in Agricultural and Applied Economics.
    2. Mwambi, Mercy & Oduol, Judith & Mshenga, Patience M. & Mwanarusi, Saidi, 2013. "Does Contract Farming Improve Smallholder Farmers Income? The Case of Avocado Farming in Kenya," 2013 Fourth International Conference, September 22-25, 2013, Hammamet, Tunisia 161514, African Association of Agricultural Economists (AAAE).
    3. Nyang'au, Paul Nyamweya, 2018. "Impact Of Integrated Pest Management Technology On Food Security Among Mango Farmers In Machakos County, Kenya," Research Theses 276453, Collaborative Masters Program in Agricultural and Applied Economics.
    4. Githiomi, Caroline & Muriithi, Beatrice & Irungu, Patrick & Mwungu, Chris M. & Diiro, Gracious & Affognon, Hippolyte & Mburu, John & Ekesi, Sunday, 2019. "Economic analysis of spillover effects of an integrated pest management (IPM) strategy for suppression of mango fruit fly in Kenya," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 84(C), pages 121-132.
    5. Anh Tru Nguyen & Janet Dzator & Andrew Nadolny, 2018. "Contract farming, agriculture productivity and poverty reduction: evidence from tea estates in Viet Nam," Asia-Pacific Sustainable Development Journal, United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP), vol. 25(1), pages 109-145, June.
    6. Mishra, Ashok K. & Kumar, Anjani & Joshi, Pramod K. & D'Souza, Alwin & Tripathi, Gaurav, 2018. "How can organic rice be a boon to smallholders? Evidence from contract farming in India," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 75(C), pages 147-157.
    7. Kumar, Anjani & Mishra, Ashok K. & Saroj, Sunil & Joshi, P.K., 2019. "Impact of traditional versus modern dairy value chains on food security: Evidence from India’s dairy sector," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 83(C), pages 260-270.
    8. Nyang’au, Paul Nyamweya & Nzuma, Jonathan & Irungu, Patrick & Muriithi, Beatrice, 2018. "A Thesis Submitted In Partial Fulfillment Of The Requirements For The Award Of A Master Of Science Degree In Agricultural And Applied Economics, University Of Nairobi," Dissertations and Theses 276387, University of Nairobi, Department of Agricultural Economics.

    More about this item


    Agribusiness; Institutional and Behavioral Economics;

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ags:iaae12:126196. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (AgEcon Search). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.