Rural Out-Migration, Income, and Poverty: Are Those Who Move Truly Better Off?
Are working-age rural migrants to urban areas really better off? This paper uses data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics from 1979 to 1997 to answer this question. It builds on literature by Fisher (2005, 2007) on the role of unmeasured characteristics in influencing rural residential choice and economic outcomes. Recursive bivariate probit models of migration and household poverty and two-stage least squares models of migration and household income are estimated for three periods: 1979 to 1985, 1985 to 1991, and 1991 to 1997. The models used in this study suggest that the relationship between rural out-migration and poverty is mixed, while there appears to be no discernable effect of rural out-migration on income in the short-run.
|Date of creation:||2009|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: 555 East Wells Street, Suite 1100, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53202|
Phone: (414) 918-3190
Fax: (414) 276-3349
Web page: http://www.aaea.org
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Psacharopoulos, George & Patrinos, Harry Anthony, 2002.
"Returns to investment in education : a further update,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
2881, The World Bank.
- George Psacharopoulos & Harry Anthony Patrinos, 2004. "Returns to investment in education: a further update," Education Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(2), pages 111-134.
- Dolton, P. J. & Makepeace, G. H., 1987. "Interpreting sample selection effects," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 24(4), pages 373-379.
- Gibbs, Robert & Kusmin, Lorin D., 2005. "Low Skill Employment and the Changing Economy of Rural America," Economic Research Report 33595, United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service.
- Borjas, George J. & Bronars, Stephen G. & Trejo, Stephen J., 1992.
"Self-selection and internal migration in the United States,"
Journal of Urban Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 159-185, September.
- George J. Borjas & Stephen G. Bronars & Stephen J. Trejo, 1992. "Self-Selection and Internal Migration in the United States," NBER Working Papers 4002, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Newey, Whitney K., 1987. "Efficient estimation of limited dependent variable models with endogenous explanatory variables," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 36(3), pages 231-250, November.
- Dora L. Costa & Matthew E. Kahn, 2000.
"Power Couples: Changes in the Locational Choice of the College Educated, 1940–1990,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
Oxford University Press, vol. 115(4), pages 1287-1315.
- Dora L. Costa & Matthew E. Kahn, 1999. "Power Couples: Changes in the Locational Choice of the College Educated, 1940-1990," NBER Working Papers 7109, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Edward L. Glaeser & David C. Mare, 1994.
"Cities and Skills,"
NBER Working Papers
4728, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Jill L. Findeis & Leif Jensen, 1998. "Employment Opportunities in Rural Areas: Implications for Poverty in a Changing Policy Environment," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 80(5), pages 1000-1007.
- Fisher, Monica G., 2005. "On the Empirical Finding of a Higher Risk of Poverty in Rural Areas: Is Rural Residence Endogenous to Poverty?," Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Western Agricultural Economics Association, vol. 30(02), August.
- Michael P. Murray, 2006. "Avoiding Invalid Instruments and Coping with Weak Instruments," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 20(4), pages 111-132, Fall.
- N/A, 2007. "At a Glance," National Institute Economic Review, National Institute of Economic and Social Research, vol. 200(1), pages 2-3, April.
- Bradford Mills & Gautam Hazarika, 2001. "The Migration of Young Adults from Non-Metropolitan Counties," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 83(2), pages 329-340.
- Bruce Weber & Leif Jensen & Kathleen Miller & Jane Mosley & Monica Fisher, 2005. "A Critical Review of Rural Poverty Literature: Is There Truly a Rural Effect?," International Regional Science Review, SAGE Publishing, vol. 28(4), pages 381-414, October.
- Mitch Renkow, 2003. "Employment Growth, Worker Mobility, and Rural Economic Development," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 85(2), pages 503-513.
- Michael Spence, 1973. "Job Market Signaling," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 87(3), pages 355-374.
- Monica Fisher, 2007. "Why Is U.S. Poverty Higher in Nonmetropolitan than in Metropolitan Areas?," Growth and Change, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 38(1), pages 56-76.
- Stephan J. Goetz & David L. Debertin, 1996. "Rural Population Decline in the 1980s: Impacts of Farm Structure and Federal Farm Programs," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 78(3), pages 517-529.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ags:aaea09:49346. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (AgEcon Search)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.