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The Environmental Regime in Developing Countries

In: Behavioral and Distributional Effects of Environmental Policy


  • Raghbendra Jha
  • John Whalley


This paper discusses the environmental externalities that are commonly found in the developing world (the environmental regime) along with the policy responses, if any, commonly used to deal with these. Included are the effects of industrial emissions, air and water quality impacts of untreated waste (industrial and human waste), congestion effects of traffic, soil erosion, and open access resource problems (including forests). We note the tendency in much literature of the last few years to equate environmental problems in developing countries with pollutants (or emissions). The paper argues that to discuss environmental problems in developing countries (or to compare with developed countries) without reference to degradation as well as pollutants is incomplete; the effects of the former are large and pervasive, and their severity and interaction with economic process often differs sharply from that of pollutants. The paper concludes with a discussion of how environmental policy in developing countries differs from that found in developed countries in light of our focus on degradation effects.
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Suggested Citation

  • Raghbendra Jha & John Whalley, 2001. "The Environmental Regime in Developing Countries," NBER Chapters,in: Behavioral and Distributional Effects of Environmental Policy, pages 217-250 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberch:10610

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    3. repec:hoo:wpaper:e-92-3 is not listed on IDEAS
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    Cited by:

    1. Jha, Raghbendra & Murthy, K. V. Bhanu, 2003. "An inverse global environmental Kuznets curve," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 352-368, June.
    2. Raghbendra Jha & K.V. Bhanu Murthy, 2004. "A Consumption Based Human Development Index and The Global Environmental Kuznets Curve," ASARC Working Papers 2004-01, The Australian National University, Australia South Asia Research Centre.
    3. Coxhead, Ian, 2002. "Development and the Upland Resource Base: Economic and Policy Context, and Lessons from a Philippine Watershed," Philippine Journal of Development PJD 2002 Vol. XXIX No. 1-, Philippine Institute for Development Studies.
    4. Coxhead, Ian, 2002. "Development and the Environment in Asia: A Survey of Recent Literature," Staff Paper Series 455, University of Wisconsin, Agricultural and Applied Economics.
    5. Aslanidis, Nektarios & Xepapadeas, Anastasios, 2008. "Regime switching and the shape of the emission-income relationship," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 25(4), pages 731-739, July.
    6. B.S., Min, 2001. "Regional cooperation for control of transboundary air pollution in East Asia," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 137-153.
    7. Perez, Oren, 2002. "The Many Faces of the Trade-Environment Conflict: Some Lessons for the Constitutionalization Project," European Integration online Papers (EIoP), European Community Studies Association Austria (ECSA-A), vol. 6, July.
    8. Bayou Demeke & Ian Coxhead, 2005. "The Effect of National Policies and Labor Market on Land Use Decisions in Developing Countries: An Application of Maximum Simulated Likelihood to System of Censored Acreages with Panel Data," Others 0503007, EconWPA.
    9. Raghbendra Jha, 2004. "Alleviating Environmental Degradation in the Asia-Pacific Region: International cooperation and the role of issue-linkage," Departmental Working Papers 2005-01, The Australian National University, Arndt-Corden Department of Economics.
    10. Arief Anshory Yusuf, 2005. "Who Pay for the Cleaner Air? Distributional Impact of Environmental Policy in a Dualistic Economy," Working Papers in Economics and Development Studies (WoPEDS) 200502, Department of Economics, Padjadjaran University, revised Feb 2005.

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