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Are cross-country studies of the Environmental Kuznets Curve misleading? New evidence from time series data for Germany

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  • Egli, Hannes

Abstract

In recent years, extensive literature on the Environmental Kuznets Curve leading to optimistic policy conclusions has attracted great attention. However, the underlying cross-section estimations are not very reliable. Accordingly, this contribution uses time series data for a single country with good data quality: Germany. With a specification that includes all theoretical variations and different appropriate estimation procedures, it is found that only for few pollutants can the typical EKC pattern be confirmed. For the major part, however, it is concluded that the doubts about the suitability of the EKC approach are well-founded.

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  • Egli, Hannes, 2001. "Are cross-country studies of the Environmental Kuznets Curve misleading? New evidence from time series data for Germany," Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Diskussionspapiere 10/2001, University of Greifswald, Faculty of Law and Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:grewdp:102001
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    5. David E. A. Giles & Carl Mosk, 2003. "Ruminant Eructation and a Long-Run Environmental Kuznets' Curve for Enteric Methane in New Zealand: Conventional and Fuzzy Regression Analysis," Econometrics Working Papers 0306, Department of Economics, University of Victoria.
    6. Costantini, Valeria & Monni, Salvatore, 2008. "Environment, human development and economic growth," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(4), pages 867-880, February.
    7. Azam, Muhammad & Khan, Abdul Qayyum, 2016. "Testing the Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis: A comparative empirical study for low, lower middle, upper middle and high income countries," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 556-567.
    8. Farhani, Sahbi & Mrizak, Sana & Chaibi, Anissa & Rault, Christophe, 2014. "The environmental Kuznets curve and sustainability: A panel data analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 189-198.
    9. Atwi, Majed & Barberán, Ramón & Mur, Jesús & Angulo, Ana, 2018. "CO2 Kuznets Curve Revisited: From Cross-Sections to Panel Data Models," INVESTIGACIONES REGIONALES - Journal of REGIONAL RESEARCH, Asociación Española de Ciencia Regional, issue 40, pages 169-196.
    10. Chiara Martini, 2006. "The Environmental Kuznets Curve," QA - Rivista dell'Associazione Rossi-Doria, Associazione Rossi Doria, issue 3, July.
    11. Sinha, Avik & Bhattacharya, Joysankar, 2017. "Estimation of environmental Kuznets curve for SO2 emission: A case of Indian cities," MPRA Paper 100009, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    12. Mazzanti, Massimiliano & Zoboli, Roberto, 2007. "Environmental Efficiency, Emission Trends and Labour Productivity: Trade-Off or Joint Dynamics? Empirical Evidence Using NAMEA Panel Data," Climate Change Modelling and Policy Working Papers 9320, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM).
    13. AkbostancI, Elif & Türüt-AsIk, Serap & Tunç, G. Ipek, 2009. "The relationship between income and environment in Turkey: Is there an environmental Kuznets curve?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 861-867, March.
    14. Wei Li & Shuang Sun & Hao Li, 2015. "Decomposing the decoupling relationship between energy-related CO 2 emissions and economic growth in China," Natural Hazards: Journal of the International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Hazards, Springer;International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Hazards, vol. 79(2), pages 977-997, November.
    15. Kaika, Dimitra & Zervas, Efthimios, 2013. "The Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) theory—Part A: Concept, causes and the CO2 emissions case," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 1392-1402.
    16. He, Jie & Richard, Patrick, 2010. "Environmental Kuznets curve for CO2 in Canada," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(5), pages 1083-1093, March.
    17. Jie He, 2007. "Is the Environmental Kuznets Curve hypothesis valid for developing countries? A survey," Cahiers de recherche 07-03, Departement d'économique de l'École de gestion à l'Université de Sherbrooke.
    18. Sahbi Farhani & Sana Mrizak & Anissa Chaibi & Christophe Rault, 2014. "The Environmental Kuznets Curve and Sustainability: A Panel Data Analysis," CESifo Working Paper Series 4787, CESifo.
    19. Jie He & Paul MAKDISSI & Quentin WODON, 2007. "Corruption, Inequality, and Environmental Regulation," Cahiers de recherche 07-13, Departement d'économique de l'École de gestion à l'Université de Sherbrooke.
    20. Jan-Erik Lane, 2012. "Climate Change Is Unavoidable," Research in World Economy, Research in World Economy, Sciedu Press, vol. 3(2), pages 1-6, September.
    21. Abdullah Tirgil & Yasin Acar & Onder Ozgur, 2021. "Revisiting the environmental Kuznets curve: evidence from Turkey," Environment, Development and Sustainability: A Multidisciplinary Approach to the Theory and Practice of Sustainable Development, Springer, vol. 23(10), pages 14585-14604, October.
    22. Sinha, Avik & Bhattacharya, Joysankar, 2016. "Environmental Kuznets curve estimation for NO2 emission: A case of Indian cities," MPRA Paper 100008, University Library of Munich, Germany.
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    25. Sinha, Avik, 2016. "Trilateral association between SO2 / NO2 emission, inequality in energy intensity, and economic growth: A case of Indian cities," MPRA Paper 100010, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Environmental Kuznets Curve; Time Series Data; Error Correction Model;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • Q00 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - General - - - General
    • Q20 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation - - - General
    • Q25 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation - - - Water

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