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Ruminant Eructation and a Long-Run Environmental Kuznets' Curve for Enteric Methane in New Zealand: Conventional and Fuzzy Regression Analysis

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Abstract

This paper examines the very long-run relationship between income and emissions of enteric methane in New Zealand, over the period 1895 to 1996. Controlling the emissions of this particular greenhouse gas is of crucial importance if that country is to meet its obligations as a signatory to the Kyoto Protocol. We use standard parametric regression, nonparametric regression, and a new nonlinear regression estimator based on fuzzy clustering analysis, to estimate 'environmental Kuznets' curves' for methane in New Zealand. Our results appear to be the first to support the existence of some form of 'inverted-U' curve for this pollutant, and the 'double-hump' relationship that emerges from our fuzzy modeling is consistent with certain theoretical results. Methane pollution is maximized at a level of real per capita GDP that is consistent with those reported for other pollutants in the literature.

Suggested Citation

  • David E. A. Giles & Carl Mosk, 2003. "Ruminant Eructation and a Long-Run Environmental Kuznets' Curve for Enteric Methane in New Zealand: Conventional and Fuzzy Regression Analysis," Econometrics Working Papers 0306, Department of Economics, University of Victoria.
  • Handle: RePEc:vic:vicewp:0306
    Note: ISSN 1485-6441
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. de Bruyn, S. M. & van den Bergh, J. C. J. M. & Opschoor, J. B., 1998. "Economic growth and emissions: reconsidering the empirical basis of environmental Kuznets curves," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 161-175, May.
    2. Roger Perman & David I. Stern, 1999. "The Environmental Kuznets Curve: Implications of Non-Stationarity," Working Papers in Ecological Economics 9901, Australian National University, Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies, Ecological Economics Program.
    3. Deininger, Klaus & Squire, Lyn, 1998. "New ways of looking at old issues: inequality and growth," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 57(2), pages 259-287.
    4. David E. A. Giles & Robert Draeseke, 2001. "Econometric Modelling based on Pattern recognition via the Fuzzy c-Means Clustering Algorithm," Econometrics Working Papers 0101, Department of Economics, University of Victoria.
    5. Gene M. Grossman & Alan B. Krueger, 1995. "Economic Growth and the Environment," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 110(2), pages 353-377.
    6. Egli, Hannes, 2001. "Are cross-country studies of the Environmental Kuznets Curve misleading? New evidence from time series data for Germany," Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Diskussionspapiere 10/2001, University of Greifswald, Faculty of Law and Economics.
    7. Andreoni, James & Levinson, Arik, 2001. "The simple analytics of the environmental Kuznets curve," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 80(2), pages 269-286, May.
    8. David E. A. Giles, 2006. "Spurious Regressions With Time-Series data: Further Asymptotic Results," Econometrics Working Papers 0603, Department of Economics, University of Victoria.
    9. Elbert Dijkgraaf & Herman Vollebergh, 2004. "A Note on Testing for Environmental Kuznets Curves with Panel Data," Others 0409001, EconWPA.
    10. Shafik, Nemat, 1994. "Economic Development and Environmental Quality: An Econometric Analysis," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 46(0), pages 757-773, Supplemen.
    11. David E.A. Giles & Hui Feng, 2003. "Testing For Convergence in Output and in 'Well-Being' in Industrialized Countries," Econometrics Working Papers 0302, Department of Economics, University of Victoria.
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    Cited by:

    1. Roy, Nilanjana & Cornelis van Kooten, G., 2004. "Another look at the income elasticity of non-point source air pollutants: a semiparametric approach," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 85(1), pages 17-22, October.
    2. Song, Tao & Zheng, Tingguo & Tong, Lianjun, 2008. "An empirical test of the environmental Kuznets curve in China: A panel cointegration approach," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 19(3), pages 381-392, September.
    3. Fodha, Mouez & Zaghdoud, Oussama, 2010. "Economic growth and pollutant emissions in Tunisia: An empirical analysis of the environmental Kuznets curve," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 1150-1156, February.
    4. David Giles & Chad Stroomer, 2006. "Does Trade Openness Affect the Speed of Output Convergence? Some Empirical Evidence," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 31(4), pages 883-903, November.
    5. Gang Liu & Terje Skjerpen & Kjetil Telle, 2009. "Unit roots, polynomial transformations and the environmental Kuznets curve," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(3), pages 285-288.
    6. Hannes Egli & Thomas Steger, 2007. "A Dynamic Model of the Environmental Kuznets Curve: Turning Point and Public Policy," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 36(1), pages 15-34, January.
    7. Pascalau, Razvan & Qirjo, Dhimitri, 2017. "TTIP and the Environmental Kuznets Curve," MPRA Paper 80192, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    cointegration; error correction model; lag length selection; sequential testing; testing for Granger noncausality; Monte Carlo simulation;

    JEL classification:

    • C14 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods: General
    • C49 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods: Special Topics - - - Other
    • C51 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Model Construction and Estimation
    • O1 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development
    • Q2 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation

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