Ruminant Eructation and a Long-Run Environmental Kuznets' Curve for Enteric Methane in New Zealand: Conventional and Fuzzy Regression Analysis
This paper examines the very long-run relationship between income and emissions of enteric methane in New Zealand, over the period 1895 to 1996. Controlling the emissions of this particular greenhouse gas is of crucial importance if that country is to meet its obligations as a signatory to the Kyoto Protocol. We use standard parametric regression, nonparametric regression, and a new nonlinear regression estimator based on fuzzy clustering analysis, to estimate 'environmental Kuznets' curves' for methane in New Zealand. Our results appear to be the first to support the existence of some form of 'inverted-U' curve for this pollutant, and the 'double-hump' relationship that emerges from our fuzzy modeling is consistent with certain theoretical results. Methane pollution is maximized at a level of real per capita GDP that is consistent with those reported for other pollutants in the literature.
|Date of creation:||06 Jun 2003|
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- David E. A. Giles & Robert Draeseke, 2001. "Econometric Modelling based on Pattern recognition via the Fuzzy c-Means Clustering Algorithm," Econometrics Working Papers 0101, Department of Economics, University of Victoria.
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- Deininger, Klaus & Squire, Lyn, 1998. "New ways of looking at old issues: inequality and growth," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 57(2), pages 259-287.
- David E.A. Giles & Hui Feng, 2003. "Testing For Convergence in Output and in 'Well-Being' in Industrialized Countries," Econometrics Working Papers 0302, Department of Economics, University of Victoria.
- de Bruyn, S. M. & van den Bergh, J. C. J. M. & Opschoor, J. B., 1998. "Economic growth and emissions: reconsidering the empirical basis of environmental Kuznets curves," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 161-175, May.
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