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An instrumental variables evaluation of the effect of antidepressant use on employment among HIV‐infected women using antiretroviral therapy in the United States: 1996–2004

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  • Omar Galárraga
  • David S. Salkever
  • Judith A. Cook
  • Stephen J. Gange

Abstract

Depression is a common condition among patients with HIV. This paper uses panel data for 1234 participants from the Women's Interagency HIV Study to estimate the effect of antidepressant use on the likelihood of being employed among women receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the United States from 1996 to 2004. We show that naive regressions of antidepressant use on employment generally result in negative or non‐significant coefficients, whereas the instrumental variables (IVs) approach shows a positive and significant effect of antidepressant use on the employment probability of women living with HIV. We use IVs to predict antidepressant use independently of outcomes, thus addressing potential biases (e.g. more depressed women are more likely to receive antidepressant treatment, but they are also more likely to be unemployed). The results are consistent for linear (random and fixed effects) as well as non‐linear (bivariate probit) specifications. Among women receiving HAART, and controlling for individual and local area labor market characteristics, the use of antidepressants is associated with a 29‐percentage‐point higher probability of being employed. Improved efforts to test, diagnose and treat depression among HIV‐positive patients may improve not only clinical indicators but also labor market outcomes. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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  • Omar Galárraga & David S. Salkever & Judith A. Cook & Stephen J. Gange, 2010. "An instrumental variables evaluation of the effect of antidepressant use on employment among HIV‐infected women using antiretroviral therapy in the United States: 1996–2004," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 19(2), pages 173-188, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:wly:hlthec:v:19:y:2010:i:2:p:173-188
    DOI: 10.1002/hec.1458
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    1. García-Gómez, Pilar & Labeaga, José M. & Oliva, Juan, 2012. "Employment and wages of people living with HIV/AIDS," MERIT Working Papers 2012-043, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
    2. Terris-Prestholt, Fern & Windmeijer, Frank, 2016. "How to sell a condom? The impact of demand creation tools on male and female condom sales in resource limited settings," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(C), pages 107-120.
    3. Luz María Peña Longobardo & Juan Oliva-Moreno, 2018. "Differences in labour participation between people living with HIV and the general population: Results from Spain along the business cycle," PLOS ONE, Public Library of Science, vol. 13(4), pages 1-13, April.
    4. Galárraga, Omar & Rana, Aadia & Rahman, Momotazur & Cohen, Mardge & Adimora, Adaora A. & Sosanya, Oluwakemi & Holman, Susan & Kassaye, Seble & Milam, Joel & Cohen, Jennifer & Golub, Elizabeth T. & Met, 2018. "The effect of unstable housing on HIV treatment biomarkers: An instrumental variables approach," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 214(C), pages 70-82.

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