IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/tei/journl/v5y2012i3p33-63.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Dynamic Approach of Capital Structure of European Shipping Companies

Author

Listed:
  • Stavros H. Arvanitis

    (T.E.I. of Crete, S.M.E., Dept. of Accounting, MSc Accounting and Auditing. Estavromenos, 71500 Heraklion, Crete, Greece)

  • Irakleia S. Tzigkounaki

    (Corresponding Author. T.E.I. of Crete, S.M.E., Dept. of Accounting, MSc Accounting and Auditing. Estavromenos, 71500 Heraklion, Crete. Plateia Analipseos square 3, 71306 Heraklion, Crete, Greece)

  • Theodoros V. Stamatopoulos

    (T.E.I. of Crete, S.M.E., Dept. of Accounting, MSc Accounting and Auditing. Estavromenos, 71500 Heraklion, Crete, Greece)

  • Eleftherios I. Thalassinos

    (University of Piraeus, Dept. of Maritime Studies, and T.E.I. of Crete, S.M.E., Dept. of Accounting, MSc Accounting and Auditing. 21 str. Gr. Lambraki, 18534 Piraeus, Greece)

Abstract

The issue of capital structure of companies is one of the most debated problems of financial management. According to economic theory, capital structure determines the stock market value of firms and therefore their viability, while one of the most negative result of the crash of 2008 and the persisting crisis (excess supply in markets of labor and money) is their ongoing steep decline of lending by credit institutions and other sources. In this paper, considering the importance of the issue and motivated by the conflicting results of previous empirical studies, we attempt the analysis of capital structure of the European Maritime Enterprises (oceanic shipping). We focus on shipping companies, because of the large volume of funding that demands their main operation, due to the intensity of the assets held. The objectives of this research are firstly the identification of factors that affect the capital structure of European oceanic shipping and secondly to search for the existence of an ideal - target capital structure ratio. The determinants of capital structure are examined through static (fixed effect method and FGLS) and dynamic (GMM Methods) econometric models, using data from the financial statements of 32 listed European shipping companies for the period 2005-2010. The results suggest the prevalence of pecking order theory in our case, while a positive relationship arises between tangible assets and tax benefits (arising from sources other than borrowing) against leverage. Moreover, we observe a negative relationship between size or profitability and debt. Our findings contribute to a deeper understanding of the decisions taken by European shipping on their capital structure.

Suggested Citation

  • Stavros H. Arvanitis & Irakleia S. Tzigkounaki & Theodoros V. Stamatopoulos & Eleftherios I. Thalassinos, 2012. "Dynamic Approach of Capital Structure of European Shipping Companies," International Journal of Business and Economic Sciences Applied Research (IJBESAR), International Hellenic University (IHU), Kavala Campus, Greece (formerly Eastern Macedonia and Thrace Institute of Technology - EMaTTech), vol. 5(3), pages 33-63, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:tei:journl:v:5:y:2012:i:3:p:33-63
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://ijbesar.teiemt.gr/docs/volume5_issue3/european_shipping_companies.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: http://ijbesar.teiemt.gr/volume5_issue3.php
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Hansen, Lars Peter, 1982. "Large Sample Properties of Generalized Method of Moments Estimators," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(4), pages 1029-1054, July.
    2. Nikolaos Eriotis & Dimitrios Vasiliou & Zoe Ventoura-Neokosmidi, 2007. "How firm characteristics affect capital structure: an empirical study," Managerial Finance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 33(5), pages 321-331, April.
    3. Goldstein, Robert & Ju, Nengjiu & Leland, Hayne, 2001. "An EBIT-Based Model of Dynamic Capital Structure," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 74(4), pages 483-512, October.
    4. Patrik Bauer, 2004. "Determinants of Capital Structure: Empirical Evidence from the Czech Republic," Czech Journal of Economics and Finance (Finance a uver), Charles University Prague, Faculty of Social Sciences, vol. 54(1-2), pages 2-21, January.
    5. Lev, Baruch & Pekelman, Dov, 1975. "A Multiperiod Adjustment Model for the Firm's Capital Structure," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 30(1), pages 75-91, March.
    6. Ang, James S., 1976. "The Intertemporal Behavior of Corporate Debt Policy," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 11(4), pages 555-566, November.
    7. Jensen, Michael C, 1986. "Agency Costs of Free Cash Flow, Corporate Finance, and Takeovers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(2), pages 323-329, May.
    8. Kim, Wi Saeng & Sorensen, Eric H., 1986. "Evidence on the Impact of the Agency Costs of Debt on Corporate Debt Policy," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 21(2), pages 131-144, June.
    9. Fitim Deari & Media Deari, 2009. "The determinants of capital structure: evidence from Macedonian listed and unlisted companies," Analele Stiintifice ale Universitatii "Alexandru Ioan Cuza" din Iasi - Stiinte Economice (1954-2015), Alexandru Ioan Cuza University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, vol. 56, pages 91-102, November.
    10. A. Noulas & G. Genimakis, 2011. "The determinants of capital structure choice: evidence from Greek listed companies," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 21(6), pages 379-387.
    11. Chen, Jean J., 2004. "Determinants of capital structure of Chinese-listed companies," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 57(12), pages 1341-1351, December.
    12. Myers, Stewart C. & Majluf, Nicholas S., 1984. "Corporate financing and investment decisions when firms have information that investors do not have," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 187-221, June.
    13. Glen, Jack & Lee, Kevin & Singh, Ajit, 2001. "Persistence of profitability and competition in emerging markets," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 72(2), pages 247-253, August.
    14. Joaquim J.S. Ramalho & Jacinto Vidigal da Silva, 2009. "A two-part fractional regression model for the financial leverage decisions of micro, small, medium and large firms," Quantitative Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(5), pages 621-636.
    15. Titman, Sheridan, 1984. "The effect of capital structure on a firm's liquidation decision," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(1), pages 137-151, March.
    16. Zélia Serrasqueiro & Paulo Maçãs Nunes & Jacinto Vidigal da Silva, 2011. "Are Capital Structure Decisions of Family-Owned SMEs Different? Empirical Evidence From Portugal," CEFAGE-UE Working Papers 2011_11, University of Evora, CEFAGE-UE (Portugal).
    17. Alan Bevan & Jo Danbolt, 2002. "Capital structure and its determinants in the UK - a decompositional analysis," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(3), pages 159-170.
    18. Laurence Booth & Varouj Aivazian & Asli Demirguc‐Kunt & Vojislav Maksimovic, 2001. "Capital Structures in Developing Countries," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 56(1), pages 87-130, February.
    19. Stewart C. Myers, 2001. "Capital Structure," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 15(2), pages 81-102, Spring.
    20. Myers, Stewart C., 1984. "Capital structure puzzle," Working papers 1548-84., Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Sloan School of Management.
    21. Myers, Stewart C, 1984. "The Capital Structure Puzzle," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 39(3), pages 575-592, July.
    22. Stewart C. Myers, 1984. "Capital Structure Puzzle," NBER Working Papers 1393, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    23. Zélia Serrasqueiro, 2011. "Are capital structure decisions of service SMEs different? Empirical evidence from Portugal," Management Research Review, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 34(1), pages 34-57, January.
    24. Murray Z. Frank & Vidhan K. Goyal, 2009. "Capital Structure Decisions: Which Factors Are Reliably Important?," Financial Management, Financial Management Association International, vol. 38(1), pages 1-37, March.
    25. Petersen, Mitchell A & Rajan, Raghuram G, 1994. "The Benefits of Lending Relationships: Evidence from Small Business Data," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 49(1), pages 3-37, March.
    26. Aktham Maghyereh, 2005. "Dynamic Capital Structure: Evidence From The Small Developing Country Of Jordan," IIUM Journal of Economics and Management, IIUM Journal of Economis and Management, vol. 13(1), pages 1-32, June.
    27. Anderson, T. W. & Hsiao, Cheng, 1982. "Formulation and estimation of dynamic models using panel data," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 47-82, January.
    28. Hansen, Lars Peter & Singleton, Kenneth J, 1982. "Generalized Instrumental Variables Estimation of Nonlinear Rational Expectations Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(5), pages 1269-1286, September.
    29. Stewart C. Myers & Nicholas S. Majluf, 1984. "Corporate Financing and Investment Decisions When Firms Have InformationThat Investors Do Not Have," NBER Working Papers 1396, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    30. Huang, Rongbing & Ritter, Jay R., 2009. "Testing Theories of Capital Structure and Estimating the Speed of Adjustment," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 44(2), pages 237-271, April.
    31. Joshua Abor, 2005. "The effect of capital structure on profitability: an empirical analysis of listed firms in Ghana," Journal of Risk Finance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 6(5), pages 438-445, November.
    32. Huang, Guihai & Song, Frank M., 2006. "The determinants of capital structure: Evidence from China," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 17(1), pages 14-36.
    33. Maria Psillaki & Nikolaos Daskalakis, 2009. "Are the determinants of capital structure country or firm specific?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 33(3), pages 319-333, October.
    34. Eugene F. Fama, 2002. "Testing Trade-Off and Pecking Order Predictions About Dividends and Debt," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 15(1), pages 1-33, March.
    35. Berger, Philip G & Ofek, Eli & Yermack, David L, 1997. "Managerial Entrenchment and Capital Structure Decisions," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(4), pages 1411-1438, September.
    36. Deesomsak, Rataporn & Paudyal, Krishna & Pescetto, Gioia, 2004. "The determinants of capital structure: evidence from the Asia Pacific region," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 14(4-5), pages 387-405.
    37. Jensen, Michael C. & Meckling, William H., 1976. "Theory of the firm: Managerial behavior, agency costs and ownership structure," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 305-360, October.
    38. Taggart, Robert A, Jr, 1977. "A Model of Corporate Financing Decisions," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 32(5), pages 1467-1484, December.
    39. Flannery, Mark J. & Rangan, Kasturi P., 2006. "Partial adjustment toward target capital structures," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 79(3), pages 469-506, March.
    40. Philippe Gaud & Elion Jani & Martin Hoesli & André Bender, 2005. "The Capital Structure of Swiss Companies: an Empirical Analysis Using Dynamic Panel Data," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 11(1), pages 51-69, January.
    41. Moh'd, Mahmoud A & Perry, Larry G & Rimbey, James N, 1998. "The Impact of Ownership Structure on Corporate Debt Policy: A Time-Series Cross-Sectional Analysis," The Financial Review, Eastern Finance Association, vol. 33(3), pages 85-98, August.
    42. Mei Qiu & Bo La, 2010. "Firm Characteristics as Determinants of Capital Structures in Australia," International Journal of the Economics of Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(3), pages 277-287.
    43. A. A. Bevan & J. Danbolt, 2004. "Testing for inconsistencies in the estimation of UK capital structure determinants," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(1), pages 55-66.
    44. Graham, John R. & Harvey, Campbell R., 2001. "The theory and practice of corporate finance: evidence from the field," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(2-3), pages 187-243, May.
    45. F. Voulgaris & D. Asteriou & G. Agiomirgianakis, 2002. "Capital structure, asset utilization, profitability and growth in the Greek manufacturing sector," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(11), pages 1379-1388.
    46. Michaelas, Nicos & Chittenden, Francis & Poutziouris, Panikkos, 1999. "Financial Policy and Capital Structure Choice in U.K. SMEs: Empirical Evidence from Company Panel Data," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 12(2), pages 113-130, March.
    47. Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1969. "A Re-Examination of the Modigliani-Miller Theorem," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 59(5), pages 784-793, December.
    48. Zélia Maria Silva Serrasqueiro & Márcia Cristina Rêgo Rogão, 2009. "Capital structure of listed Portuguese companies: Determinants of debt adjustment," Review of Accounting and Finance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 8(1), pages 54-75, February.
    49. de Miguel, Alberto & Pindado, Julio, 2001. "Determinants of capital structure: new evidence from Spanish panel data," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 77-99, March.
    50. Myers, Stewart C., 1977. "Determinants of corporate borrowing," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 147-175, November.
    51. Titman, Sheridan & Wessels, Roberto, 1988. " The Determinants of Capital Structure Choice," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 43(1), pages 1-19, March.
    52. Diamond, Douglas W, 1989. "Reputation Acquisition in Debt Markets," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(4), pages 828-862, August.
    53. DeAngelo, Harry & Masulis, Ronald W., 1980. "Optimal capital structure under corporate and personal taxation," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 3-29, March.
    54. Wald, John K, 1999. "How Firm Characteristics Affect Capital Structure: An International Comparison," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association;Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 22(2), pages 161-187, Summer.
    55. Mohammad M. Omran & John Pointon, 2009. "Capital structure and firm characteristics: an empirical analysis from Egypt," Review of Accounting and Finance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 8(4), pages 454-474, October.
    56. Imad Moosa & Larry Li & Tony Naughton, 2011. "Robust and fragile firm-specific determinants of the capital structure of Chinese firms," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 21(18), pages 1331-1343.
    57. Warner, Jerold B, 1977. "Bankruptcy Costs: Some Evidence," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 32(2), pages 337-347, May.
    58. Fischer, Edwin O & Heinkel, Robert & Zechner, Josef, 1989. " Dynamic Capital Structure Choice: Theory and Tests," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 44(1), pages 19-40, March.
    59. Miller, Merton H, 1977. "Debt and Taxes," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 32(2), pages 261-275, May.
    60. Amir H. Alizadeh & Nikos K. Nomikos, 2009. "Shipping Derivatives and Risk Management," Palgrave Macmillan Books, Palgrave Macmillan, number 978-0-230-23580-9, Januario-.
    61. Aydin Ozkan, 2001. "Determinants of Capital Structure and Adjustment to Long Run Target: Evidence From UK Company Panel Data," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 28(1-2), pages 175-198.
    62. John K. Wald, 1999. "How Firm Characteristics Affect Capital Structure: An International Comparison," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association;Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 22(2), pages 161-187, June.
    63. Manuel Arellano & Stephen Bond, 1991. "Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 58(2), pages 277-297.
    64. Jalilvand, Abolhassan & Harris, Robert S, 1984. "Corporate Behavior in Adjusting to Capital Structure and Dividend Targets: An Econometric Study," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 39(1), pages 127-145, March.
    65. Viet A. Dang, 2011. "Leverage, Debt Maturity and Firm Investment: An Empirical Analysis," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 38(1-2), pages 225-258, January.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Agus Suroso & Ade Irma Anggraeni & Andriyansah, 2017. "Optimizing SMEs’ Business Performance Through Human Capital Management," European Research Studies Journal, European Research Studies Journal, vol. 0(4B), pages 588-599.
    2. George C. Bitros, 2016. "Ocean Shipping: By Far the Best Growth Model for Greece," European Research Studies Journal, European Research Studies Journal, vol. 0(1), pages 44-58.
    3. Yulia Vladimirovna Gnezdova & Victoria Viktorovna Glekova & Nasrullah Abdurakhmanovich Adamov & Alexander Nikolaevich Bryntsev & Tatyana Andreevna Kozenkova, 2017. "Development Prospects of the Transport Infrastructure of Russia in the Conditions of Development of the Market of Transport and Logistic Services," European Research Studies Journal, European Research Studies Journal, vol. 0(4A), pages 619-631.
    4. Amit Hedau & Shailender Singh & Huwati Janor, 2018. "Determinants Of Capital Structure – A Sector Specific Approach," Romanian Economic Business Review, Romanian-American University, vol. 13(4), pages 14-30, december.
    5. Natalia Nikolaevna Natocheeva & Yury Alexandrovich Rovensky & Tatiana Viktorovna Belyanchikova & Yury Yuryevich Rusanov, 2017. "The Diversification of Banking Capital Sources and Cash Flow Granularity in Merger and Acquisition Transactions," European Research Studies Journal, European Research Studies Journal, vol. 0(4A), pages 501-514.
    6. Peter Vaz da Fonseca & Andrea Decourt Savelli & Michele Nascimento Juca, 2020. "A Systematic Review of the Influence of Taxation on Corporate Capital Structure," International Journal of Economics & Business Administration (IJEBA), International Journal of Economics & Business Administration (IJEBA), vol. 0(2), pages 155-178.
    7. Julia Vladimirovna Gnezdova & Vladimir Ivanovich Barilenko & Nikolai Nikolaevich Semenov & Yurii Vasil'evich Yakutin & Svetlana Vladimirovna Sharova, 2017. "Current Trends in the Development of Russia’s E-Commerce Sector," European Research Studies Journal, European Research Studies Journal, vol. 0(4B), pages 472-483.
    8. Dimiter Nenkov Nenkov, 2016. "An Analytical Approach to Comparing Actual Vs. 'Fundamental Price-to-Sales' and “Enterprise Value-to-Sales†Ratios on the European Stock Market," International Journal of Economics & Business Administration (IJEBA), International Journal of Economics & Business Administration (IJEBA), vol. 0(4), pages 32-49.
    9. Merika, Anna & Theodoropoulou, Sotiria & Triantafyllou, Anna & Laios, Alexandros, 2015. "The relationship between business cycles and capital structure choice: The case of the international shipping industry," The Journal of Economic Asymmetries, Elsevier, vol. 12(2), pages 92-99.
    10. Dariusz Bernacki, 2021. "Revealing the Impact of Increased Tanker Size on Shipping Costs," European Research Studies Journal, European Research Studies Journal, vol. 0(1), pages 604-621.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Mai, Nhat Chi, 2012. "Market timing, taxes and capital structure: evidence from Vietnam," OSF Preprints t3mvs, Center for Open Science.
    2. Vo, Xuan Vinh, 2017. "Determinants of capital structure in emerging markets: Evidence from Vietnam," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 105-113.
    3. Shoaib Ali & Attiya Yasmin Javid, 2015. "Relationship between Credit Rating, Capital Structure and Earning Management Behaviour: Evidence from Pakistani Listed Firms," PIDE-Working Papers 2015:121, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics.
    4. Miguel Acedo-Ramírez & Juan Ayala-Calvo & José Rodríguez-Osés, 2013. "Capital structure of small companies in the Spanish footwear sector: relevant factors," SERIEs: Journal of the Spanish Economic Association, Springer;Spanish Economic Association, vol. 4(2), pages 155-173, June.
    5. Viet Anh Dang, 2005. "Testing the Trade-off and Pecking Order Theory: Some UK Evidence," Money Macro and Finance (MMF) Research Group Conference 2005 28, Money Macro and Finance Research Group.
    6. Viet Anh Dang, 2011. "Testing Capital Structure Theories Using Error Correction Models: Evidence From The Uk, France And Germany," Post-Print hal-00732527, HAL.
    7. Yildirim, Ramazan & Masih, Mansur & Bacha, Obiyathulla Ismath, 2018. "Determinants of capital structure: evidence from Shari'ah compliant and non-compliant firms," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 198-219.
    8. Nivorozhkin, Eugene, 2005. "Financing choices of firms in EU accession countries," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 6(2), pages 138-169, June.
    9. İbrahim Yarba & Z. Nuray Güner, 2020. "Leverage dynamics: Do financial development and government leverage matter? Evidence from a major developing economy," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 59(5), pages 2473-2507, November.
    10. José López-Gracia & Francisco Sogorb-Mira, 2008. "Testing trade-off and pecking order theories financing SMEs," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 31(2), pages 117-136, August.
    11. Chakraborty, Indrani, 2010. "Capital structure in an emerging stock market: The case of India," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 24(3), pages 295-314, September.
    12. Mário Santos & António Moreira & Elisabete Vieira, 2014. "Ownership concentration, contestability, family firms, and capital structure," Journal of Management & Governance, Springer;Accademia Italiana di Economia Aziendale (AIDEA), vol. 18(4), pages 1063-1107, November.
    13. Rana El Bahsh & Ali Alattar & Aziz N. Yusuf, 2018. "Firm, Industry and Country Level Determinants of Capital Structure: Evidence from Jordan," International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, Econjournals, vol. 8(2), pages 175-190.
    14. Temimi, Akram & Zeitun, Rami & Mimouni, Karim, 2016. "How does the tax status of a country impact capital structure? Evidence from the GCC region," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 37, pages 71-89.
    15. Ebrahim, M. Shahid & Girma, Sourafel & Shah, M. Eskandar & Williams, Jonathan, 2014. "Dynamic capital structure and political patronage: The case of Malaysia," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 117-128.
    16. Biswajit Ghose, 2017. "Impact of Business Group Affiliation on Capital Structure Adjustment Speed: Evidence from Indian Manufacturing Sector," Emerging Economy Studies, International Management Institute, vol. 3(1), pages 54-67, May.
    17. Giorgio Canarella & Stephen M. Miller, 2019. "Determinants of Optimal Capital Structure and Speed of Adjustment: Evidence from the U.S. ICT Sector," Working papers 2019-06, University of Connecticut, Department of Economics.
    18. Sardo, Filipe & Serrasqueiro, Zélia & Armada, Manuel Rocha, 2022. "The importance of owner loans for rebalancing the capital structure of small knowledge-intensive service firms," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 61(C).
    19. Khémiri, Wafa & Noubbigh, Hédi, 2018. "Determinants of capital structure: Evidence from sub-Saharan African firms," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 150-159.
    20. Mohamed, Hisham Hanifa & Masih, Mansur & Bacha, Obiyathulla I., 2015. "Why do issuers issue Sukuk or conventional bond? Evidence from Malaysian listed firms using partial adjustment models," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 233-252.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Capital Structure; Trade-off Theory; Pecking Order Theory; Dynamic Panel Data; Shipping companies;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill
    • C23 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Single Equation Models; Single Variables - - - Models with Panel Data; Spatio-temporal Models
    • L91 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Transportation and Utilities - - - Transportation: General

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:tei:journl:v:5:y:2012:i:3:p:33-63. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/dbikagr.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Kostas Stergidis (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/dbikagr.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.