IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/spr/scient/v122y2020i2d10.1007_s11192-019-03324-4.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Measuring and explaining the production efficiency of Spanish universities using a non-parametric approach and a bootstrapped-truncated regression

Author

Listed:
  • Manuel Salas-Velasco

    (University of Granada)

Abstract

The identification of environmental factors that explain differences in efficiency is essential for improving the results of public universities. A two-stage, semi-parametric approach with the single and double bootstrap procedure (Algorithm #1 and Algorithm #2) proposed by Simar and Wilson (J Econom 136(1):31–64, 2007) was used in this article for making valid inferences about the impact of environmental factors on university efficiency. A data envelopment analysis (DEA) efficiency estimator was used in the first stage to estimate technical efficiency scores for Spanish public universities. It is common to explore the determinants of (in)efficiency in a second stage. To provide valid inference, Simar and Wilson (2007) suggested a parametric bootstrap of the truncated regression (Algorithm #1). Alternatively, they recommended a bootstrap procedure to obtain bias-corrected technical efficiency scores used in the second-stage truncated regression; valid inference can be obtained by using a second bootstrap procedure applied to the truncated regression (Algorithm #2). Under both algorithms, three environmental factors were statistically significant predictors of efficiency. Our results confirmed that universities with a higher percentage of academics with tenure, outgoing Erasmus students, and state grantees tend to be less inefficient.

Suggested Citation

  • Manuel Salas-Velasco, 2020. "Measuring and explaining the production efficiency of Spanish universities using a non-parametric approach and a bootstrapped-truncated regression," Scientometrics, Springer;Akadémiai Kiadó, vol. 122(2), pages 825-846, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:scient:v:122:y:2020:i:2:d:10.1007_s11192-019-03324-4
    DOI: 10.1007/s11192-019-03324-4
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11192-019-03324-4
    File Function: Abstract
    Download Restriction: Access to the full text of the articles in this series is restricted.

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1007/s11192-019-03324-4?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. William W. Cooper & Lawrence M. Seiford & Joe Zhu (ed.), 2011. "Handbook on Data Envelopment Analysis," International Series in Operations Research and Management Science, Springer, number 978-1-4419-6151-8, December.
    2. Leopold Simar & Paul Wilson, 2000. "A general methodology for bootstrapping in non-parametric frontier models," Journal of Applied Statistics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 27(6), pages 779-802.
    3. Antreas Athanassopoulos & Estelle Shale, 1997. "Assessing the Comparative Efficiency of Higher Education Institutions in the UK by the Means of Data Envelopment Analysis," Education Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 5(2), pages 117-134.
    4. Oleg Badunenko & Pavlo Mozharovskyi, 2016. "Nonparametric frontier analysis using Stata," Stata Journal, StataCorp LP, vol. 16(3), pages 550-589, September.
    5. Léopold Simar & Paul W. Wilson, 2015. "Statistical Approaches for Non-parametric Frontier Models: A Guided Tour," International Statistical Review, International Statistical Institute, vol. 83(1), pages 77-110, April.
    6. Jill Johnes, 2014. "Efficiency and Mergers in English Higher Education 1996/97 to 2008/9: Parametric and Non-parametric Estimation of the Multi-input Multi-output Distance Function," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 82(4), pages 465-487, July.
    7. Kristof De Witte & Laura López-Torres, 2017. "Efficiency in education: a review of literature and a way forward," Journal of the Operational Research Society, Palgrave Macmillan;The OR Society, vol. 68(4), pages 339-363, April.
    8. Lidia Angulo-Meza & Marcos Lins, 2002. "Review of Methods for Increasing Discrimination in Data Envelopment Analysis," Annals of Operations Research, Springer, vol. 116(1), pages 225-242, October.
    9. Fried, Harold O. & Lovell, C. A. Knox & Schmidt, Shelton S. (ed.), 2008. "The Measurement of Productive Efficiency and Productivity Growth," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780195183528, Decembrie.
    10. Cinzia Daraio & Léopold Simar, 2005. "Introducing Environmental Variables in Nonparametric Frontier Models: a Probabilistic Approach," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 24(1), pages 93-121, September.
    11. Avkiran, Necmi K., 2001. "Investigating technical and scale efficiencies of Australian Universities through data envelopment analysis," Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 57-80, March.
    12. Johnes, Jill & Yu, Li, 2008. "Measuring the research performance of Chinese higher education institutions using data envelopment analysis," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 679-696, December.
    13. Liu, John S. & Lu, Louis Y.Y. & Lu, Wen-Min & Lin, Bruce J.Y., 2013. "A survey of DEA applications," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 41(5), pages 893-902.
    14. Kao, Chiang & Hung, Hsi-Tai, 2008. "Efficiency analysis of university departments: An empirical study," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 36(4), pages 653-664, August.
    15. James L. Bess, 1998. "Contract Systems, Bureaucracies, and Faculty Motivation," The Journal of Higher Education, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 69(1), pages 1-22, January.
    16. Fried, Harold O. & Lovell, C. A. Knox & Schmidt, Shelton S. (ed.), 1993. "The Measurement of Productive Efficiency: Techniques and Applications," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780195072181, Decembrie.
    17. Charnes, A. & Cooper, W. W. & Rhodes, E., 1978. "Measuring the efficiency of decision making units," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 2(6), pages 429-444, November.
    18. Meeusen, Wim & van den Broeck, Julien, 1977. "Efficiency Estimation from Cobb-Douglas Production Functions with Composed Error," International Economic Review, Department of Economics, University of Pennsylvania and Osaka University Institute of Social and Economic Research Association, vol. 18(2), pages 435-444, June.
    19. Susan M. Dynarski, 2003. "Does Aid Matter? Measuring the Effect of Student Aid on College Attendance and Completion," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 93(1), pages 279-288, March.
    20. Melville L. McMillan & Debasish Datta, 1998. "The Relative Efficiencies of Canadian Universities: A DEA Perspective," Canadian Public Policy, University of Toronto Press, vol. 24(4), pages 485-511, December.
    21. Léopold Simar & Paul W. Wilson, 1998. "Sensitivity Analysis of Efficiency Scores: How to Bootstrap in Nonparametric Frontier Models," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 44(1), pages 49-61, January.
    22. Andrew Worthington, 2001. "An Empirical Survey of Frontier Efficiency Measurement Techniques in Education," Education Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(3), pages 245-268.
    23. Bradley, Steve & Johnes, Geraint & Millington, Jim, 2001. "The effect of competition on the efficiency of secondary schools in England," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 135(3), pages 545-568, December.
    24. Joanna Wolszczak-Derlacz & Aleksandra Parteka, 2011. "Efficiency of European public higher education institutions: a two-stage multicountry approach," Scientometrics, Springer;Akadémiai Kiadó, vol. 89(3), pages 887-917, December.
    25. Daraio, Cinzia & Simar, Leopold & Wilson, Paul, 2016. "Nonparametric Estimation of Efficiency in the Presence of Environmental Variables," LIDAM Discussion Papers ISBA 2016027, Université catholique de Louvain, Institute of Statistics, Biostatistics and Actuarial Sciences (ISBA).
    26. Johnes, Jill, 2006. "Data envelopment analysis and its application to the measurement of efficiency in higher education," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 25(3), pages 273-288, June.
    27. Eva M. de la Torre & Tommaso Agasisti & Carmen Perez-Esparrells, 2017. "The relevance of knowledge transfer for universities’ efficiency scores: an empirical approximation on the Spanish public higher education system," Research Evaluation, Oxford University Press, vol. 26(3), pages 211-229.
    28. A. T. Flegg & D. O. Allen & K. Field & T. W. Thurlow, 2004. "Measuring the efficiency of British universities: a multi-period data envelopment analysis," Education Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(3), pages 231-249.
    29. Muniz, M. A., 2002. "Separating managerial inefficiency and external conditions in data envelopment analysis," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 143(3), pages 625-643, December.
    30. Joao Ricardo Faria & Peter McAdam, 2014. "Does Tenure Make Researchers Less Productive? The Case of the “Specialist”," School of Economics Discussion Papers 0514, School of Economics, University of Surrey.
    31. Rørstad, Kristoffer & Aksnes, Dag W., 2015. "Publication rate expressed by age, gender and academic position – A large-scale analysis of Norwegian academic staff," Journal of Informetrics, Elsevier, vol. 9(2), pages 317-333.
    32. Rajiv D. Banker & Richard C. Morey, 1986. "Efficiency Analysis for Exogenously Fixed Inputs and Outputs," Operations Research, INFORMS, vol. 34(4), pages 513-521, August.
    33. Emrouznejad, Ali & Parker, Barnett R. & Tavares, Gabriel, 2008. "Evaluation of research in efficiency and productivity: A survey and analysis of the first 30 years of scholarly literature in DEA," Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 42(3), pages 151-157, September.
    34. Susanne Warning, 2004. "Performance Differences in German Higher Education: Empirical Analysis of Strategic Groups," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 24(4), pages 393-408, June.
    35. Gillen, David & Lall, Ashish, 1997. "Developing measures of airport productivity and performance: an application of data envelopment analysis," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 33(4), pages 261-273, December.
    36. Tommaso Agasisti & Joanna Wolszczak-Derlacz, 2016. "Exploring efficiency differentials between Italian and Polish universities, 2001–11," Science and Public Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 43(1), pages 128-142.
    37. Tziogkidis, Panagiotis, 2012. "Bootstrap DEA and Hypothesis Testing," Cardiff Economics Working Papers E2012/18, Cardiff University, Cardiff Business School, Economics Section.
    38. Orea, Luis & Zofío, José L., 2017. "A primer on the theory and practice of efficiency and productivity analysis," Efficiency Series Papers 2017/05, University of Oviedo, Department of Economics, Oviedo Efficiency Group (OEG).
    39. Geraint Johnes & Jill Johnes, 2016. "Costs, efficiency, and economies of scale and scope in the English higher education sector," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press and Oxford Review of Economic Policy Limited, vol. 32(4), pages 596-614.
    40. Tommaso Agasisti & Antonio Dal Bianco, 2009. "Measuring efficiency of Higher Education institutions," International Journal of Management and Decision Making, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 10(5/6), pages 443-465.
    41. Chang, Young-Tae & Lee, Suhyung & Park, Hyosoo (Kevin), 2017. "Efficiency analysis of major cruise lines," Tourism Management, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 78-88.
    42. Simar, Leopold & Wilson, Paul W., 2007. "Estimation and inference in two-stage, semi-parametric models of production processes," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 136(1), pages 31-64, January.
    43. Dag Fjeld Edvardsen & Finn R. Førsund & Sverre A. C. Kittelsen, 2017. "Productivity development of Norwegian institutions of higher education 2004–2013," Journal of the Operational Research Society, Palgrave Macmillan;The OR Society, vol. 68(4), pages 399-415, April.
    44. Abbott, M. & Doucouliagos, C., 2003. "The efficiency of Australian universities: a data envelopment analysis," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 89-97, February.
    45. Cohn, Elchanan & Rhine, Sherrie L W & Santos, Maria C, 1989. "Institutions of Higher Education as Multi-product Firms: Economies of Scale and Scope," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 71(2), pages 284-290, May.
    46. Marie-Laure Bougnol & José Dulá, 2006. "Validating DEA as a ranking tool: An application of DEA to assess performance in higher education," Annals of Operations Research, Springer, vol. 145(1), pages 339-365, July.
    47. George E. Halkos & Nickolaos G. Tzeremes & Stavros A. Kourtzidis, 2012. "Measuring Public Owned University Departments' Efficiency: A Bootstrapped DEA Approach," Journal of Economics and Econometrics, Economics and Econometrics Society, vol. 55(2), pages 1-24.
    48. Tyagi, Preeti & Yadav, Shiv Prasad & Singh, S.P., 2009. "Relative performance of academic departments using DEA with sensitivity analysis," Evaluation and Program Planning, Elsevier, vol. 32(2), pages 168-177, May.
    49. Johnes, Jill & Johnes, Geraint, 1995. "Research funding and performance in U.K. University Departments of Economics: A frontier analysis," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 301-314, September.
    50. Sabine Gralka & Klaus Wohlrabe & Lutz Bornmann, 2018. "How to Measure Research Efficiency in Higher Education? Research Grants vs. Publication Output," CESifo Working Paper Series 7055, CESifo.
    51. Caldera, Aida & Debande, Olivier, 2010. "Performance of Spanish universities in technology transfer: An empirical analysis," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(9), pages 1160-1173, November.
    52. Timo Kuosmanen & Andrew L. Johnson, 2010. "Data Envelopment Analysis as Nonparametric Least-Squares Regression," Operations Research, INFORMS, vol. 58(1), pages 149-160, February.
    53. Ray, Subhash C., 1988. "Data envelopment analysis, nondiscretionary inputs and efficiency: an alternative interpretation," Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 22(4), pages 167-176.
    54. Rajiv D. Banker & Ram Natarajan, 2008. "Evaluating Contextual Variables Affecting Productivity Using Data Envelopment Analysis," Operations Research, INFORMS, vol. 56(1), pages 48-58, February.
    55. Breu, Theodore M. & Raab, Raymond L., 1994. "Efficiency and perceived quality of the nation's "top 25" National Universities and National Liberal Arts Colleges: An application of data envelopment analysis to higher education," Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 33-45.
    56. R. D. Banker & A. Charnes & W. W. Cooper, 1984. "Some Models for Estimating Technical and Scale Inefficiencies in Data Envelopment Analysis," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 30(9), pages 1078-1092, September.
    57. Johnes, Jill, 2006. "Measuring teaching efficiency in higher education: An application of data envelopment analysis to economics graduates from UK Universities 1993," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 174(1), pages 443-456, October.
    58. Berbegal-Mirabent, Jasmina & Lafuente, Esteban & Solé, Francesc, 2013. "The pursuit of knowledge transfer activities: An efficiency analysis of Spanish universities," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 66(10), pages 2051-2059.
    59. Aigner, Dennis & Lovell, C. A. Knox & Schmidt, Peter, 1977. "Formulation and estimation of stochastic frontier production function models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 6(1), pages 21-37, July.
    60. Fandel, Gunter, 2007. "On the performance of universities in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany: Government's redistribution of funds judged using DEA efficiency measures," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 176(1), pages 521-533, January.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Joan Crespo & Jesús Peiró-Palomino & Emili Tortosa-Ausina, 2020. "Does university performance have an economic payoff for their home regions? Evidence for the Spanish provinces," Working Papers 2020/20, Economics Department, Universitat Jaume I, Castellón (Spain).
    2. Samira El Gibari & Trinidad Gómez & Francisco Ruiz, 2022. "Combining reference point based composite indicators with data envelopment analysis: application to the assessment of universities," Scientometrics, Springer;Akadémiai Kiadó, vol. 127(8), pages 4363-4395, August.
    3. Meng, Qiaoyu & Li, Yi & Cao, Qinwei, 2024. "The paradox analysis and functional mechanism between R&D efficiency and transformation effect: Evidence from key universities in China," Technovation, Elsevier, vol. 130(C).
    4. Shih-Pin Chen & Chung-Wei Chang, 2021. "Measuring the efficiency of university departments: an empirical study using data envelopment analysis and cluster analysis," Scientometrics, Springer;Akadémiai Kiadó, vol. 126(6), pages 5263-5284, June.
    5. Tavares, Rafael Santos & Angulo-Meza, Lidia & Sant'Anna, Annibal Parracho, 2021. "A proposed multistage evaluation approach for Higher Education Institutions based on network Data envelopment analysis: A Brazilian experience," Evaluation and Program Planning, Elsevier, vol. 89(C).
    6. Mehdi Rhaiem & Nabil Amara, 2020. "Determinants of research efficiency in Canadian business schools: evidence from scholar-level data," Scientometrics, Springer;Akadémiai Kiadó, vol. 125(1), pages 53-99, October.
    7. Lena Malesevic Perovic & Maja Mihaljevic Kosor, 2020. "The Efficiency of Universities in Achieving Sustainable Development Goals," The AMFITEATRU ECONOMIC journal, Academy of Economic Studies - Bucharest, Romania, vol. 22(54), pages 516-516, April.
    8. María-Celia López-Penabad & José Manuel Maside-Sanfiz & Juan Torrelles Manent & Ana Iglesias-Casal, 2020. "Application of the DEA Double Bootstrap to Analyze Efficiency in Galician Sheltered Workshops," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 12(16), pages 1-21, August.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Kristof De Witte & Laura López-Torres, 2017. "Efficiency in education: a review of literature and a way forward," Journal of the Operational Research Society, Palgrave Macmillan;The OR Society, vol. 68(4), pages 339-363, April.
    2. Mehdi Rhaiem, 2017. "Measurement and determinants of academic research efficiency: a systematic review of the evidence," Scientometrics, Springer;Akadémiai Kiadó, vol. 110(2), pages 581-615, February.
    3. Agasisti, Tommaso & Barra, Cristian & Zotti, Roberto, 2016. "Evaluating the efficiency of Italian public universities (2008–2011) in presence of (unobserved) heterogeneity," Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 47-58.
    4. Lars Herberholz & Berthold U. Wigger, 2020. "Efficiency of European Universities: A Comparison of Peers," CESifo Working Paper Series 8044, CESifo.
    5. Renato A. Villano & Carolyn‐Dung T. T. Tran, 2021. "Survey on technical efficiency in higher education: A meta‐fractional regression analysis," Pacific Economic Review, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 26(1), pages 110-135, February.
    6. Tzeremes, Nickolaos & Halkos, George, 2010. "A DEA approach for measuring university departments’ efficiency," MPRA Paper 24029, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Calogero Guccio & Marco Ferdinando Martorana & Luisa Monaco, 2016. "Evaluating the impact of the Bologna Process on the efficiency convergence of Italian universities: a non-parametric frontier approach," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 45(3), pages 275-298, June.
    8. Sanjeet Singh & Prabhat Ranjan, 2018. "Efficiency analysis of non-homogeneous parallel sub-unit systems for the performance measurement of higher education," Annals of Operations Research, Springer, vol. 269(1), pages 641-666, October.
    9. Calogero Guccio & Marco Ferdinando Martorana & Isidoro Mazza, 2016. "Efficiency assessment and convergence in teaching and research in Italian public universities," Scientometrics, Springer;Akadémiai Kiadó, vol. 107(3), pages 1063-1094, June.
    10. Mishra, Neelesh Kumar & Chakraborty, Abhishek & Singh, Sanjeet & Ranjan, Prabhat, 2023. "Efficiency analysis of engineering colleges in India: Decomposition into parallel sub-processes systems," Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 89(C).
    11. Mehdi Rhaiem & Nabil Amara, 2020. "Determinants of research efficiency in Canadian business schools: evidence from scholar-level data," Scientometrics, Springer;Akadémiai Kiadó, vol. 125(1), pages 53-99, October.
    12. Barra, Cristian & Lagravinese, Raffaele & Zotti, Roberto, 2018. "Does econometric methodology matter to rank universities? An analysis of Italian higher education system," Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 104-120.
    13. Yang, Guo-liang & Fukuyama, Hirofumi & Song, Yao-yao, 2018. "Measuring the inefficiency of Chinese research universities based on a two-stage network DEA model," Journal of Informetrics, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 10-30.
    14. Touati-Tliba, Mohamed, 2024. "Comparative performance of Algeria's education districts: The Influence of colonial legacy through cultural capital," Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 91(C).
    15. Angela Stefania Bergantino & Claudia Capozza & Francesco Porcelli, 2015. "Hotelling competition and teaching efficiency of Italian university faculties. A semi-parametric analysis," Working papers 26, Società Italiana di Economia Pubblica.
    16. Joanna Wolszczak-Derlacz & Aleksandra Parteka, 2011. "Efficiency of European public higher education institutions: a two-stage multicountry approach," Scientometrics, Springer;Akadémiai Kiadó, vol. 89(3), pages 887-917, December.
    17. Huguenin, Jean-Marc, 2015. "Adjusting for the environment in DEA: A comparison of alternative models based on empirical data," Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 41-54.
    18. Léopold Simar & Paul W. Wilson, 2015. "Statistical Approaches for Non-parametric Frontier Models: A Guided Tour," International Statistical Review, International Statistical Institute, vol. 83(1), pages 77-110, April.
    19. Yolanda Fernández-Santos & Almudena Martínez-Campillo & José Miguel Fernández-Fernández, 2015. "Determinantes de la eficiencia en las universidades públicas españolas: un análisis DEA en dos etapas," Investigaciones de Economía de la Educación volume 10, in: Marta Rahona López & Jennifer Graves (ed.), Investigaciones de Economía de la Educación 10, edition 1, volume 10, chapter 25, pages 491-508, Asociación de Economía de la Educación.
    20. Barra, Cristian & Lagravinese, Raffaele & Zotti, Roberto, 2015. "Explaining (in)efficiency in higher education: a comparison of parametric and non-parametric analyses to rank universities," MPRA Paper 67119, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Data envelopment analysis; Bootstrapped-truncated regression; Simar and Wilson; Efficiency measurement; Spanish public universities;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • D22 - Microeconomics - - Production and Organizations - - - Firm Behavior: Empirical Analysis
    • I23 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Higher Education; Research Institutions
    • C50 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - General

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:spr:scient:v:122:y:2020:i:2:d:10.1007_s11192-019-03324-4. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Sonal Shukla or Springer Nature Abstracting and Indexing (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.springer.com .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.