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BRICSAM and the non–WTO

Author

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  • Agata Antkiewicz

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  • John Whalley

Abstract

We discuss recent regional trade and economic partnership agreements involving the large population rapidly growing economies (Brazil, Russia, China, India, South Africa, ASEAN, Mexico) who (with the exception of Mexico) are also outside of the OECD. Perhaps 50 out of 300 that exist worldwide now involve BRICSAM countries and most are recently concluded and to be implemented over the next few years. Along with extensive bilateral investment treaties, mutual recognition agreements, and other country (or region) to country arrangement they are part of what we term the non-WTO. We are able to find little literature on these agreements, and our aim is to document and characterize, as much as analyze possible impacts. We note the sharp variation both across countries in the form that agreements take and also across agreements for individual countries. Agreements differ in specificity, coverage and content. In some treaties there are detailed and specific commitments, but these also coexist with seemingly vague commitments and (at times) opaque dispute settlement and enforcement. Whether these represent a partial replacement of WTO process for new negotiated reciprocity-based global trade liberalization over the next decade or so, or largely represent diplomatic protocol alongside significant WTO disciplines is the issue we discuss.
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Suggested Citation

  • Agata Antkiewicz & John Whalley, 2006. "BRICSAM and the non–WTO," The Review of International Organizations, Springer, vol. 1(3), pages 237-261, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:revint:v:1:y:2006:i:3:p:237-261
    DOI: 10.1007/s11558-006-9492-6
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Agata Antkiewicz & John Whalley, 2005. "China's New Regional Trade Agreements," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 28(10), pages 1539-1557, October.
    2. Akiko Suwa-Eisenmann & Thierry Verdier, 2007. "Aid and trade," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 23(3), pages 481-507, Autumn.
    3. Ibarra-Yunez, Alejandro, 2003. "Spaghetti regionalism or strategic foreign trade: some evidence for Mexico," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 72(2), pages 567-584, December.
    4. Lucian Cernat, 2001. "ASSESSING REGIONAL TRADE ARRANGEMENTS: ARE SOUTH–SOUTH RTAs MORE TRADE DIVERTING?," International Trade 0109001, EconWPA.
    5. O. G. Dayaratna Banda & John Whalley, 2005. "Beyond Goods and Services: Competition Policy, Investment, Mutual Recognition, Movement of Persons, and Broader Cooperation Provisions of Recent FTAs involving ASEAN Countries," NBER Working Papers 11232, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. John Whalley & Dana Medianu, 2010. "The Deepening China Brazil Economic Relationship," CESifo Working Paper Series 3289, CESifo Group Munich.
    2. John Whalley, 2008. "Recent Regional Agreements: Why So Many, Why So Much Variance in Form, Why Coming So Fast, and Where Are They Headed?," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 31(4), pages 517-532, April.
    3. Nenci, Silvia, 2008. "The Rise of the Southern Economies: Implications for the WTO-Multilateral Trading System," WIDER Working Paper Series 010, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Economic integration; Multilateralism; Regionalism; Regional trade agreements; WTO; F00; F02; F15;

    JEL classification:

    • F00 - International Economics - - General - - - General
    • F02 - International Economics - - General - - - International Economic Order and Integration
    • F15 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Economic Integration

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