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China’s family planning policies and their labor market consequences

Author

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  • Fei Wang

    (Renmin University of China)

  • Liqiu Zhao

    (Renmin University of China)

  • Zhong Zhao

    () (Renmin University of China)

Abstract

Abstract China initiated its family planning policy in 1962 and its one-child policy in 1980, and it allowed all couples to have two children as of 1 January 2016. This paper systematically examines the labor market consequences of China’s family planning policies. First, we briefly review the historical evolution of China’s family planning policies and the existing literature. Second, we investigate the effects of these policies on the labor market, focusing on the size and quality of the working-age population and its age and gender composition. We give special attention to regional differences in the demographic structure resulting from the interaction of the family planning policies and internal migration. Finally, we discuss ongoing and prospective policy changes and their potential consequences. Although urban areas and coastal provinces have implemented stricter family planning policies, our analysis shows that because of internal migration, the aging problem is more severe in rural areas and in inland provinces. Our simulation results further indicate that the new two-child policy might fall short of pulling China out of its aging situation.

Suggested Citation

  • Fei Wang & Liqiu Zhao & Zhong Zhao, 2017. "China’s family planning policies and their labor market consequences," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 30(1), pages 31-68, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:jopoec:v:30:y:2017:i:1:d:10.1007_s00148-016-0613-0
    DOI: 10.1007/s00148-016-0613-0
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Yao, Yuxin, 2017. "Essays on economics of language and family economics," Other publications TiSEM 0093bc8e-e869-4f87-8ff8-8, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    2. Junsen Zhang, 2017. "The Evolution of China's One-Child Policy and Its Effects on Family Outcomes," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 31(1), pages 141-160, Winter.
    3. repec:dem:demres:v:37:y:2017:i:30 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. repec:eee:eneeco:v:70:y:2018:i:c:p:45-60 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. repec:iza:izawol:journl:2017:n:387 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Family planning policy; One-child policy; Aging; Migration;

    JEL classification:

    • J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
    • J11 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Demographic Trends, Macroeconomic Effects, and Forecasts
    • J21 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Force and Employment, Size, and Structure
    • J61 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Mobility, Unemployment, Vacancies, and Immigrant Workers - - - Geographic Labor Mobility; Immigrant Workers

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