Female Employment and Fertility in Rural China
Data on 2,288 married women from the 2006 China Health and Nutrition Survey are deployed to study how off-farm female employment affects fertility. Such employment reduces a married womanâ€™s actual number of children by 0.64, her preferred number by 0.48, and her probability of having more than one child by 54.8 percent. Causality flows in both directions; hence, we use well validated instrumental variables to estimate employment status. China has deep concerns with both female employment and population size. Moreover, female employment is growing quickly. Hence, its implications for fertility must be understood. Ramifications for Chinaâ€™s one-child policy are discussed.
|Date of creation:||2010|
|Publication status:||Published in HKS Faculty Research Working Paper Series|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: 79 JFK Street, Cambridge, MA 02138|
Web page: http://www.hks.harvard.edu/
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Hongbin Li & Junsen Zhang, 2007. "Do High Birth Rates Hamper Economic Growth?," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 89(1), pages 110-117, February.
- Mark R. Rosenzweig & Junsen Zhang, 2009.
"Do Population Control Policies Induce More Human Capital Investment? Twins, Birth Weight and China's "One-Child" Policy,"
Review of Economic Studies,
Oxford University Press, vol. 76(3), pages 1149-1174.
- Rosenzweig, Mark R. & Zhang, Junsen, 2006. "Do Population Control Policies Induce More Human Capital Investment? Twins, Birthweight, and China's 'One Child' Policy," IZA Discussion Papers 2082, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Mark R. Rosenzweig & Junsen Zhang, 2006. "Do Population Control Policies Induce More Human Capital Investment? Twins, Birthweight, and China's 'One Child' Policy," Working Papers 933, Economic Growth Center, Yale University.
- Gourieroux, Christian & Monfort, Alain & Renault, Eric & Trognon, Alain, 1987. "Generalised residuals," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 34(1-2), pages 5-32.
- Avraham Ebenstein, 2010. "The "Missing Girls" of China and the Unintended Consequences of the One Child Policy," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 45(1).
- Jolliffe, Dean & Campos, Nauro F., 2005. "Does market liberalisation reduce gender discrimination? Econometric evidence from Hungary, 1986-1998," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 1-22, February.
- Dean Jolliffe & Nauro F. Campos, 2004. "Does Market Liberalisation Reduce Gender Discrimination? Econometric Evidence from Hungary, 1986???1998," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 2004-678, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
- Yao, Yang, 1999. "Rural industry and labor market integration in eastern China," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(2), pages 463-496, August.
- Xuejin Zuo & Feng Wang, 1999. "Inside China's Cities: Institutional Barriers and Opportunities for Urban Migrants," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(2), pages 276-280, May.
- Tao Yang, Dennis, 1997. "China's land arrangements and rural labor mobility," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 8(2), pages 101-115.
- Killingsworth, Mark R. & Heckman, James J., 1987. "Female labor supply: A survey," Handbook of Labor Economics,in: O. Ashenfelter & R. Layard (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 2, pages 103-204 Elsevier.
- Smith, Richard J & Blundell, Richard W, 1986. "An Exogeneity Test for a Simultaneous Equation Tobit Model with an Application to Labor Supply," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 54(3), pages 679-685, May.
- Terza, Joseph V. & Basu, Anirban & Rathouz, Paul J., 2008. "Two-stage residual inclusion estimation: Addressing endogeneity in health econometric modeling," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 531-543, May.
- Scotese, Carol & Wang, Ping, 1995. "Can Government Enforcement Permanently Alter Fertility? The Case of China," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 33(4), pages 552-570, October.
- Carol Scotese Lehr, 2009. "Evidence on the Demographic Transition," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 91(4), pages 871-887, November.
- Carol Scotese Lehr, 2003. "Evidence on the Demographic Transition," Working Papers 0302, VCU School of Business, Department of Economics.
- Hongbin Li & Scott Rozelle & Linxiu Zhang, 2004. "Micro-credit programs and off-farm migration in China," Pacific Economic Review, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 9(3), pages 209-223, October.
- Adriaan S. Kalwij, 2000. "The effects of female employment status on the presence and number of children," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 13(2), pages 221-239.
- Avraham Ebenstein, 2009. "When is the Local Average Treatment Close to the Average?: Evidence from Fertility and Labor Supply," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 44(4).
- Zhang, Junsen, 1990. "Socioeconomic Determinants of Fertility in China: A Microeconometric Analysis," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 3(2), pages 105-123, August.
- Hongbin Li & Junsen Zhang, 2009. "Testing the External Effect of Household Behavior: The Case of the Demand for Children," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 44(4).
- Dennis Tao Yang & Marjorie McElroy, 2000. "Carrots and Sticks: Fertility Effects of China's Population Policies," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(2), pages 389-392, May.
- Rivers, Douglas & Vuong, Quang H., 1988. "Limited information estimators and exogeneity tests for simultaneous probit models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 39(3), pages 347-366, November.
- Orley Ashenfelter & Junsen Zhang, 2004. "Introduction," Pacific Economic Review, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 9(3), pages 151-153, October.
- Campos, Nauro F & Jolliffe, Dean, 2004. "Does Market Liberalization Reduce Gender Discrimination? Econometric Evidence from Hungary, 1986-98," CEPR Discussion Papers 4350, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)