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The effects of female employment status on the presence and number of children

Author

Listed:
  • Adriaan S. Kalwij

    () (Institute of Economics and Statistics, University of Oxford, St. Cross Building, Manor Road, Oxford OX1 3UL, United Kingdom)

Abstract

The main concern of this paper is to analyze the effects of female employment status on the presence and number of children in households in the Netherlands. For this purpose a hurdle count data model is formulated and estimated by the generalized method of moments. The hurdle takes explicitly into account the interrelationship between female employment status and timing of first birth. The number of children, once children are present in the household, is modeled conditional on female employment status. The empirical results show that female employment status is a major determinant of the presence and number of children in households: employed women schedule children later in life and have fewer children compared to nonemployed women, holding educational attainment constant. After controlling for female employment status, the educational attainment of both the woman and the man in the households are found to have relatively small effects on the presence and number of children.

Suggested Citation

  • Adriaan S. Kalwij, 2000. "The effects of female employment status on the presence and number of children," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 13(2), pages 221-239.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:jopoec:v:13:y:2000:i:2:p:221-239
    Note: Received: 3 November 1998/Accepted: 22 September 1999
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Sumon Kumar Bhaumik & Jeffrey B. Nugent, 2002. "Does Economic Uncertainty Have an Impact on Decisions to Bear Children? Evidence from Eastern Germany," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 491, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
    2. Maria Gutierrez-Domenech, 2002. "The Impact of the Labour Market on the Timing of Marriage and Births in Spain," CEP Discussion Papers dp0556, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
    3. repec:eee:ecmode:v:70:y:2018:i:c:p:15-28 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Bratti, Massimiliano & Miranda, Alfonso, 2010. "Endogenous Treatment Effects for Count Data Models with Sample Selection or Endogenous Participation," IZA Discussion Papers 5372, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    5. Pablo Brañas-Garza & Shoshana Neuman, 2007. "Parental religiosity and daughters’ fertility: the case of Catholics in southern Europe," Review of Economics of the Household, Springer, vol. 5(3), pages 305-327, September.
    6. Luigi Aldieri & Adriana Barone & Concetto Paolo Vinci, 2006. "Human capital and fertility decisions in Italy: a microeconometric analysis of ECHP data," Brussels Economic Review, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles, vol. 49(4), pages 281-292.
    7. Andreia Tolciu & Ulrich Zierahn, 2012. "Women and work: what role do social norms play?," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 26(6), pages 711-733, April.
    8. Bellido, Héctor & Marcén, Miriam, 2014. "Divorce laws and fertility," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(C), pages 56-70.
    9. Hai Fang & Karen N. Eggleston & John A. Rizzo & Richard J. Zeckhauser, 2010. "Jobs and Kids: Female Employment and Fertility in Rural China," NBER Working Papers 15886, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    10. Pablo Brañas-Garza & Shoshana Neuman, 2006. "Is fertility related to religiosity?-Evidence from Spain," Papers on Economics of Religion 06/06, Department of Economic Theory and Economic History of the University of Granada..
    11. Fanti, Luciano & Manfredi, Piero, 2009. "Neoclassical production theory and growth with unemployment: The stability issue revisited," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 126-135, June.
    12. Bloemen, Hans & Kalwij, Adriaan S., 2001. "Female labor market transitions and the timing of births: a simultaneous analysis of the effects of schooling," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(5), pages 593-620, December.
    13. Van den Broeck, Goedele & Maertens, Miet, 2014. "Does female employment reduce fertility rates? Evidence from the Senegalese horticultural export sector," 2014 International Congress, August 26-29, 2014, Ljubljana, Slovenia 182715, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
    14. Van den Broeck, Goedele & Maertens, Miet, 2015. "Female Employment reduces Fertility in Rural Senegal," 2015 Conference, August 9-14, 2015, Milan, Italy 212206, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    15. Fang, Hai & Eggleston, Karen N. & Rizzo, John A. & Zeckhauser, Richard Jay, 2010. "Female Employment and Fertility in Rural China," Scholarly Articles 4449097, Harvard Kennedy School of Government.
    16. George Hondroyiannis, 2010. "Fertility Determinants and Economic Uncertainty: An Assessment Using European Panel Data," Journal of Family and Economic Issues, Springer, vol. 31(1), pages 33-50, March.
    17. Marcén, Miriam & Molina, José Alberto & Morales, Marina, 2018. "The effect of culture on the fertility decisions of immigrant women in the United States," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 70(C), pages 15-28.
    18. Luciano Fanati & Piero Manfredi, 2003. "Population, Unemployment and Economic Growth Cycles: A Further Explanatory Perspective," Metroeconomica, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 54(2-3), pages 179-207, May.
    19. Laura C. Blanco, 2017. "Inertial reproduction: is the two-child psychology the rule in Costa Rica?," Working Papers 201703, Universidad de Costa Rica, revised Dec 2017.
    20. Rondinelli, Concetta & Aassve, Arnstein & Billari, Francesco C., 2006. "Income and childbearing decisions: evidence from Italy," ISER Working Paper Series 2006-06, Institute for Social and Economic Research.
    21. Yukawa, Shiho, 2012. "教養娯楽価格が出産に与える影響
      [The Effect of Recreational Goods Price on Fertility]
      ," MPRA Paper 35808, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    22. Andrew Morrison & Shwetlena Sabarwal, 2008. "The Economic Participation of Adolescent Girls and Young Women : Why Does It Matter?," World Bank Other Operational Studies 11131, The World Bank.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Hurdle count data model; fertility; female employment;

    JEL classification:

    • C35 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Discrete Regression and Qualitative Choice Models; Discrete Regressors; Proportions
    • J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
    • J20 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - General

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