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On equilibrium in pure strategies in games with many players

  • Edward Cartwright

    ()

  • Myrna Wooders

    ()

Treating games of incomplete information with countable sets of actions and types and finite but large player sets we demonstrate that for every mixed strategy profile there is a pure strategy profile that is 'epsilon-equivalent'. Our framework introduces and exploits a distinction between crowding attributes of players (their external effects on others) and their taste attributes (their payoff functions and any other attributes that are not directly relevant to other players). The main assumption is a 'large game' property, dictating that the actions of relatively small subsets of players cannot have large effects on the payoffs of others Since it is well known that, even allowing mixed strategies, with a countable set of actions a Nash equilibrium may not exist, we provide an existence of equilibrium theorem. The proof of existence relies on a relationship between the 'better reply security' property of Reny (1999) and a stronger version of the large game property. Our purification theorem are based on a new mathematical result, of independent interest, applicable to countable strategy spaces.

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File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s00182-008-0150-5
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Article provided by Springer & Game Theory Society in its journal International Journal of Game Theory.

Volume (Year): 38 (2009)
Issue (Month): 1 (March)
Pages: 137-153

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Handle: RePEc:spr:jogath:v:38:y:2009:i:1:p:137-153
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  1. Cartwright, Edward & Wooders, Myrna, 2003. "On Equilibrium in Pure Stategies in Games with Many Players," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 686, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
  2. Wooders, Myrna & Edward Cartwright & Selten, Reinhard, 2002. "Social Conformity And Equilibrium In Pure Strategies In Games With Many Players," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 636, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
  3. Wooders, Myrna Holtz, 1994. "Equivalence of Games and Markets," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 62(5), pages 1141-60, September.
  4. Guilherme Carmona, 2003. "On the Purification of Nash Equilibria of Large Games," Game Theory and Information 0311007, EconWPA.
  5. Kovalenkov, Alexander & Wooders, Myrna Holtz, 1999. "Approximate Cores Of Games And Economies With Clubs," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 535, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
  6. Theo Offerman & Jan Potters & Joep Sonnemans, 2002. "Imitation and Belief Learning in an Oligopoly Experiment," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 69(4), pages 973-997.
  7. Anderson, Robert M., 1992. "The core in perfectly competitive economies," Handbook of Game Theory with Economic Applications, in: R.J. Aumann & S. Hart (ed.), Handbook of Game Theory with Economic Applications, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 14, pages 413-457 Elsevier.
  8. Rui Pascoa, Mario, 1993. "Approximate equilibrium in pure strategies for non-atomic games," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(3), pages 223-241.
  9. Khan, M. Ali & Rath, Kali P. & Sun, Yeneng, 1997. "On the Existence of Pure Strategy Equilibria in Games with a Continuum of Players," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 76(1), pages 13-46, September.
  10. Rath, Kali P. & Yeneng Sun & Shinji Yamashige, 1995. "The nonexistence of symmetric equilibria in anonymous games with compact action spaces," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(4), pages 331-346.
  11. Conley, John P. & Wooders, Myrna H., 2001. "Tiebout Economies with Differential Genetic Types and Endogenously Chosen Crowding Characteristics," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 98(2), pages 261-294, June.
  12. Martin W. Cripps & Godfrey Keller & Sven Rady, 2002. "Strategic Experimentation: The Case of Poisson Bandits," CESifo Working Paper Series 737, CESifo Group Munich.
  13. Conley, John P. & Wooders, Myrna H., 1997. "Equivalence of the Core and Competitive Equilibrium in a Tiebout Economy with Crowding Types," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(3), pages 421-440, May.
  14. Edward Cartwright & Myrna Wooders, 2003. "Conformity and Bounded Rationality in Games with Many Players," Working Papers 2003.123, Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei.
  15. Rashid, Salim, 1983. "Equilibrium points of non-atomic games : Asymptotic results," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 7-10.
  16. Myrna Wooders & Edward Cartwright & Reinhard Selten, 2005. "Behavioral Conformity in Games with Many Players," Vanderbilt University Department of Economics Working Papers 0513, Vanderbilt University Department of Economics.
  17. Ehud Kalai, 2001. "Ex-Post Stability in Large Games," Discussion Papers 1351, Northwestern University, Center for Mathematical Studies in Economics and Management Science.
  18. Philip J. Reny, 1999. "On the Existence of Pure and Mixed Strategy Nash Equilibria in Discontinuous Games," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 67(5), pages 1029-1056, September.
  19. Edward Cartwright & Myrna Wooders, 2005. "On Purification of Equilibrium in Bayesian Games and Ex-Post Nash Equilibrium," Vanderbilt University Department of Economics Working Papers 0512, Vanderbilt University Department of Economics.
  20. Mario Rui Pascoa, 1998. "Nash equilibrium and the law of large numbers," International Journal of Game Theory, Springer;Game Theory Society, vol. 27(1), pages 83-92.
  21. Friedman, Daniel, 1996. "Equilibrium in Evolutionary Games: Some Experimental Results," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 106(434), pages 1-25, January.
  22. Pascoa Mario Rui, 1993. "Noncooperative Equilibrium and Chamberlinian Monopolistic Competition," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 60(2), pages 335-353, August.
  23. Ehud Kalai, 2002. "Large Robust Games," Discussion Papers 1350, Northwestern University, Center for Mathematical Studies in Economics and Management Science.
  24. Mas-Colell, Andreu, 1984. "On a theorem of Schmeidler," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 201-206, December.
  25. Mark Walker & John Wooders, 2001. "Minimax Play at Wimbledon," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(5), pages 1521-1538, December.
  26. Green, Edward J., 1982. "Continuum and Finite-Player Noncooperative Models of Competition," Working Papers 418, California Institute of Technology, Division of the Humanities and Social Sciences.
  27. Khan, M. Ali & Sun, Yeneng, 1999. "Non-cooperative games on hyperfinite Loeb spaces1," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(4), pages 455-492, May.
  28. Conley, John P. & Wooders, Myrna, 1996. "Taste-homogeneity of optimal jurisdictions in a Tiebout economy with crowding types and endogenous educational investment choices," Ricerche Economiche, Elsevier, vol. 50(4), pages 367-387, December.
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