IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/sae/globus/v18y2017i4p825-848.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Determinants of Exchange Rate in Pakistan: Revisited with Structural Break Testing

Author

Listed:
  • Syed Ali Raza
  • Sahar Afshan

Abstract

This study examines the determinants of exchange rate in Pakistan by using the time-series data from 1972 to 2013. The results of the autoregressive distributed lag bound testing co-integration approach, the Johansen and Juselius co-integration approach and the Gregory and Hansen structural break co-integration approach confirm the significant long-run relationship between a few considered variables. The estimations of the long run indicate a significant negative association of exchange rates with terms of trade, trade openness and economic growth. However, money supply and inflation rate have a positive and significant effect on exchange rates. The outcomes of the error correction model suggest the negative and significant relationship of the terms of trade and trade openness on exchange rates of Pakistan in the short run. However, all other variables are found insignificant in the short run. The Granger causality test confirms the presence of a bidirectional causal relationship of the exchange rate with economics growth and trade openness in Pakistan. However, the inflation, money supply and terms of trade possess the unidirectional causality which runs from the explanatory variable to the exchange rate of the country. The present study may guide policymakers in formulating conclusive monetary and fiscal policies to ascertain the less volatile and productive exchange rate for Pakistan to attain sustainable economic growth for a long span of time.

Suggested Citation

  • Syed Ali Raza & Sahar Afshan, 2017. "Determinants of Exchange Rate in Pakistan: Revisited with Structural Break Testing," Global Business Review, International Management Institute, vol. 18(4), pages 825-848, August.
  • Handle: RePEc:sae:globus:v:18:y:2017:i:4:p:825-848
    DOI: 10.1177/0972150917692210
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0972150917692210
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1177/0972150917692210?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Engel, Charles & Rogers, John H., 2001. "Deviations from purchasing power parity: causes and welfare costs," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(1), pages 29-57, October.
    2. Peter C. B. Phillips & Mico Loretan, 1991. "Estimating Long-run Economic Equilibria," The Review of Economic Studies, Review of Economic Studies Ltd, vol. 58(3), pages 407-436.
    3. Frankel, Jeffrey A. & Rose, Andrew K., 1996. "Currency Crashes in Emerging Markets: Empirical Indicators," Center for International and Development Economics Research (CIDER) Working Papers 233424, University of California-Berkeley, Department of Economics.
    4. Clostermann, Jörg & Schnatz, Bernd, 2000. "The determinants of the euro-dollar exchange rate: synthetic fundamentals and a non-existing currency," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 2000,02, Deutsche Bundesbank.
    5. Karine Gente & Miguel Leon-Ledesma, 2006. "Does the world real interest rate affect the real exchange rate? The South East Asian experience," The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(4), pages 441-467.
    6. Johansen, Soren & Juselius, Katarina, 1990. "Maximum Likelihood Estimation and Inference on Cointegration--With Applications to the Demand for Money," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 52(2), pages 169-210, May.
    7. Neumeyer, Pablo A. & Perri, Fabrizio, 2005. "Business cycles in emerging economies: the role of interest rates," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(2), pages 345-380, March.
    8. Joseph Joyce & Linda Kamas, 2003. "Real and nominal determinants of real exchange rates in Latin America: Short-run dynamics and long-run equilibrium," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 39(6), pages 155-182.
    9. Jose De Gregorio & Holger C. Wolf, 1994. "Terms of Trade, Productivity, and the Real Exchange Rate," NBER Working Papers 4807, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    10. Zivot, Eric & Andrews, Donald W K, 2002. "Further Evidence on the Great Crash, the Oil-Price Shock, and the Unit-Root Hypothesis," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 20(1), pages 25-44, January.
    11. M. O. Odedokun, 1997. "An empirical analysis on the determinants of the real exchange rate in African countries," The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 6(1), pages 63-82.
    12. Philip R Lane & Gian Maria Milesi-Ferretti, 2011. "The Cross-Country Incidence of the Global Crisis," IMF Economic Review, Palgrave Macmillan;International Monetary Fund, vol. 59(1), pages 77-110, April.
    13. Stock, James H & Watson, Mark W, 1993. "A Simple Estimator of Cointegrating Vectors in Higher Order Integrated Systems," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 61(4), pages 783-820, July.
    14. M. Hashem Pesaran & Yongcheol Shin & Richard J. Smith, 2001. "Bounds testing approaches to the analysis of level relationships," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(3), pages 289-326.
    15. Hau, Harald, 2002. "Real Exchange Rate Volatility and Economic Openness: Theory and Evidence," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 34(3), pages 611-630, August.
    16. Paulo Gala & Claudio R. Lucinda, 2006. "Exchange Rate Misalignment and Growth: Old and New Econometric Evidence," Economia, ANPEC - Associação Nacional dos Centros de Pós-Graduação em Economia [Brazilian Association of Graduate Programs in Economics], vol. 7(4), pages 165-187.
    17. Anita Mirchandani, 2013. "Analysis of Macroeconomic Determinants of Exchange Rate Volatility in India," International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, Econjournals, vol. 3(1), pages 172-179.
    18. Riané de Bruyn & Rangan Gupta & Lardo Stander, 2013. "Testing the Monetary Model for Exchange Rate Determination in South Africa: Evidence from 101 Years of Data," Contemporary Economics, University of Economics and Human Sciences in Warsaw., vol. 7(1), March.
    19. Jeannine Bailliu & Robert Lafrance & Jean‐François Perrault, 2003. "Does Exchange Rate Policy Matter for Growth?," International Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 6(3), pages 381-414, November.
    20. Venus Khim-Sen Liew & Ahmad Zubaidi Baharumshah & Chin-Hong Puah, 2009. "Monetary Model of Exchange Rate for Thailand: Long-run Relationship and Monetary Restrictions," Global Economic Review, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(4), pages 385-395.
    21. Hsieh, David A., 1982. "The determination of the real exchange rate : The productivity approach," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(3-4), pages 355-362, May.
    22. Philip Lane & Gian Maria Milesi-Ferretti, 2002. "Long-run determinants of the Irish real exchange rate," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(5), pages 549-553.
    23. Alfred A. Haug, 2002. "Temporal Aggregation and the Power of Cointegration Tests: a Monte Carlo Study," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 64(4), pages 399-412, September.
    24. Teitel, Simon & Colman Sercovich, Francisco, 1984. "Latin America," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 12(5-6), pages 645-660.
    25. Hrushikesh Mallick, 2010. "Factors Determining the Exchange Rate Movement under a Partial Capital Mobility Regime," International Economic Journal, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 24(2), pages 249-266.
    26. Martin Berka & Michael B. Devereux, 2010. "What determines European real exchange rates?," Globalization Institute Working Papers 46, Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas.
    27. Mr. Peter J Montiel & Bijan B. Aghevli & Mr. Mohsin S. Khan, 1991. "Exchange Rate Policy in Developing Countries: Some Analytical Issues," IMF Occasional Papers 1991/009, International Monetary Fund.
    28. Gregory, Allan W. & Hansen, Bruce E., 1996. "Residual-based tests for cointegration in models with regime shifts," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 70(1), pages 99-126, January.
    29. Granger, C W J, 1969. "Investigating Causal Relations by Econometric Models and Cross-Spectral Methods," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 37(3), pages 424-438, July.
    30. Bahmani-Oskooee, Mohsen & Tanku, Altin, 2006. "Black market exchange rate, currency substitution and the demand for money in LDCs," Economic Systems, Elsevier, vol. 30(3), pages 249-263, October.
    31. Frank Agbola & Chartri Kunanopparat, 2005. "Determinants of exchange rate practices: some empirical evidence from Thailand," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(7), pages 807-816.
    32. Hamna Ahmed, 2009. "Capital Flows and Real Exchange Rate Overvaluation - A Chronic Ailment: Evidence from Pakistan," Lahore Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics, vol. 14(Special E), pages 51-86, September.
    33. Naeem Ur Rehman Khattak & Muhammad Tariq & Jangraiz Khan, 2012. "Factors Affecting the Nominal Exchange Rate of Pakistan: An Econometric Investigation (1982-2008)," Asian Economic and Financial Review, Asian Economic and Social Society, vol. 2(2), pages 421-428.
    34. Ekpeno L. Effiong, 2014. "Exchange Rate Dynamics and Monetary Fundamentals: A Cointegrated SVAR Approach for Nigeria," Global Business Review, International Management Institute, vol. 15(2), pages 205-221, June.
    35. Peter C. B. Phillips & Bruce E. Hansen, 1990. "Statistical Inference in Instrumental Variables Regression with I(1) Processes," The Review of Economic Studies, Review of Economic Studies Ltd, vol. 57(1), pages 99-125.
    36. Syed Jawaid & Syed Raza, 2013. "Dynamics of Current Account Deficit: A Lesson from Pakistan," Transition Studies Review, Springer;Central Eastern European University Network (CEEUN), vol. 19(3), pages 357-366, February.
    37. Bleaney, Michael & Fielding, David, 2002. "Exchange rate regimes, inflation and output volatility in developing countries," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 233-245, June.
    38. Hock Tsen Wong, 2013. "Real exchange rate misalignment and economic growth in Malaysia," Journal of Economic Studies, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 40(3), pages 298-313, May.
    39. Dornbusch, Rudiger, 1983. "Real Interest Rates, Home Goods, and Optimal External Borrowing," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 91(1), pages 141-153, February.
    40. Rehana Siddiqui & Usman Afridi & Zafar Mahmood, 1996. "Exchange Rate Determination in Pakistan: A Simultaneous Equation Model," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 35(4), pages 683-692.
    41. Kishore G. Kulkarni & Maiko Ishizaki, 2002. "Purchasing Power Parity Theory Revisited: Recent Evidence from US Dollar and Japanese Yen," Global Business Review, International Management Institute, vol. 3(1), pages 53-61, February.
    42. Meese, Richard A. & Rogoff, Kenneth, 1983. "Empirical exchange rate models of the seventies : Do they fit out of sample?," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(1-2), pages 3-24, February.
    43. Elbadawi, Ibrahim A & Soto, Raimundo, 1997. "Real Exchange Rates and Macroeconomic Adjustment in Sub-Saharan Africa and Other Developing Countries," Journal of African Economies, Centre for the Study of African Economies, vol. 6(3), pages 74-120, Supplemen.
    44. Jawaid, Syed Tehseen & Raza, Syed Ali, 2013. "Effects of terms of trade on growth performance of India," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 940-946.
    45. Frankel, Jeffrey A. & Rose, Andrew K., 1996. "Currency crashes in emerging markets: An empirical treatment," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(3-4), pages 351-366, November.
    46. Gregory, Allan W & Hansen, Bruce E, 1996. "Tests for Cointegration in Models with Regime and Trend Shifts," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 58(3), pages 555-560, August.
    47. Bela Balassa, 1964. "The Purchasing-Power Parity Doctrine: A Reappraisal," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 72(6), pages 584-584.
    48. Bleaney, Michael F., 1996. "Macroeconomic stability, investment and growth in developing countries," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(2), pages 461-477, March.
    49. Smith, C. E., 1999. "Exchange rate variation, commodity price variation and the implications for international trade," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(3), pages 471-491.
    50. Hock Tsen Wong, 2013. "Real exchange rate misalignment and economic growth in Malaysia," Journal of Economic Studies, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, vol. 40(3), pages 298-313, July.
    51. Edwards, Sebastian, 1988. "Real and monetary determinants of real exchange rate behavior: Theory and evidence from developing countries," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 311-341, November.
    52. Naeem Ur Rehman Khattak & Muhammad Tariq & Jangraiz Khan, 2012. "Factors Affecting the Nominal Exchange Rate of Pakistan: An Econometric Investigation (1982-2008)," Asian Economic and Financial Review, Asian Economic and Social Society, vol. 2(2), pages 421-428, June.
    53. John Cady & Jesus Gonzalez-Garcia, 2007. "Exchange Rate Volatility and Reserves Transparency," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 54(4), pages 741-754, November.
    54. Barry Eichengreen, 2008. "The Real Exchange Rate and Economic Growth," World Bank Publications - Books, The World Bank Group, number 28013, December.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Saghir Pervaiz GHAURI & Hina QADIR & Rizwan Raheem AHMED & Dalia STREIMIKIENE & Justas STREIMIKIS, 2022. "The Exports Performance of Pakistan: Evidence from the ARDL Cointegration Analysis," Journal for Economic Forecasting, Institute for Economic Forecasting, vol. 0(4), pages 150-168, December.
    2. Agus Salim & Kai Shi, 2019. "A Cointegration of the Exchange Rate and Macroeconomic Fundamentals: The Case of the Indonesian Rupiah vis-á-vis Currencies of Primary Trade Partners," JRFM, MDPI, vol. 12(2), pages 1-17, May.
    3. Terver Theophilus Kumeka & Olabusuyi Rufus Falayi & Adeniyi Jimmy Adedokun & Francis Olayinka Adeyemi, 2023. "Economic policy uncertainty and exchange market pressure in Nigeria: a quantile regression analysis," International Journal of Sustainable Economy, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 15(2), pages 135-166.
    4. Johari, Mohamad Shukri & Habibullah, Muzafar & Abdul Ghani, Roseziahazni & Abdul Manaf, Suhaily Maizan, 2021. "The Macroeconomic Fundamentals of the Real Exchange Rate in Malaysia: Some Empirical Evidence," Jurnal Ekonomi Malaysia, Faculty of Economics and Business, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, vol. 55(2), pages 81-89.
    5. Aamir Aijaz Syed, 2021. "The Asymmetric Relationship Between Military Expenditure, Economic Growth and Industrial Productivity: An Empirical Analysis of India, China and Pakistan Via the NARDL Approach," Revista Finanzas y Politica Economica, Universidad Católica de Colombia, vol. 13(1), pages 77-97, March.
    6. Rizwan Raheem AHMED & Saghir Pervaiz GHAURI & Jolita VVEINHARDT & Dalia STREIMIKIENE, 2018. "An Empirical Analysis of Export, Import, and Inflation: A Case of Pakistan," Journal for Economic Forecasting, Institute for Economic Forecasting, vol. 0(3), pages 117-130, September.
    7. Chen, Liming & Du, Ziqing & Hu, Zhihao, 2020. "Impact of economic policy uncertainty on exchange rate volatility of China," Finance Research Letters, Elsevier, vol. 32(C).
    8. Liming Chen & Zhi Zhang & Ziqing Du & Lingling Deng, 2021. "Heterogeneous determinants of the exchange rate market in China with structural breaks," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 53(59), pages 6839-6854, December.
    9. Adedokun Adeniyi J. & Falayi Olabusuyi R. & Adeyemi Francis O. & Kumeka Terver T., 2022. "Global Economic Uncertainties and Exchange Rate Management in Africa: A Panel Study," Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Economics and Business, Sciendo, vol. 10(1), pages 161-184, September.
    10. Syed Ali Raza & Syed Zaki Hassan & Arshian Sharif, 2019. "Asymmetric Relationship Between Government Revenues and Expenditures in a Developing Economy: Evidence from a Non-linear Model," Global Business Review, International Management Institute, vol. 20(5), pages 1179-1195, October.
    11. Pastorek, Daniel, 2023. "Euro area uncertainty and Euro exchange rate volatility: Exploring the role of transnational economic policy," Finance Research Letters, Elsevier, vol. 58(PA).
    12. Helena Glebocki Keefe & Sujata Saha, 2022. "Threshold effects of openness on real and nominal effective exchange rates in emerging and developing economies," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 45(5), pages 1386-1408, May.
    13. Muhammad Kamran Khan & Jian-Zhou Teng & Muhammad Imran Khan, 2019. "Cointegration between macroeconomic factors and the exchange rate USD/CNY," Financial Innovation, Springer;Southwestern University of Finance and Economics, vol. 5(1), pages 1-15, December.
    14. Terver T. Kumeka & Olabusuyi R. Falayi & Adeniyi J. Adedokun & Francis O. Adeyemi, 2022. "An econometric analysis of economic policy uncertainty and exchange market pressure of the three largest economies in West Africa," SN Business & Economics, Springer, vol. 2(11), pages 1-33, November.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Muhammad Kamran Khan & Jian-Zhou Teng & Muhammad Imran Khan, 2019. "Cointegration between macroeconomic factors and the exchange rate USD/CNY," Financial Innovation, Springer;Southwestern University of Finance and Economics, vol. 5(1), pages 1-15, December.
    2. Helena Glebocki Keefe & Sujata Saha, 2022. "Threshold effects of openness on real and nominal effective exchange rates in emerging and developing economies," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 45(5), pages 1386-1408, May.
    3. Arshian Sharif, Sahar Afshan, 2016. "Tourism Development and Real Effective Exchange Rate Revisited by Wavelet based Analysis: Evidence from France," Journal of Finance and Economics Research, Geist Science, Iqra University, Faculty of Business Administration, vol. 1(2), pages 101-118, October.
    4. Arshian Sharif & Sahar Afshan, 2018. "Does Military Spending Impede Income Inequality? A Comparative Study of Pakistan and India," Global Business Review, International Management Institute, vol. 19(2), pages 257-279, April.
    5. repec:ipg:wpaper:2014-592 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Cashin, Paul & Cespedes, Luis F. & Sahay, Ratna, 2004. "Commodity currencies and the real exchange rate," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 75(1), pages 239-268, October.
    7. Wasim Qazi & Syed Ali Raza & Arshian Sharif, 2017. "Higher Education Development and Unemployment in Pakistan: Evidence from Structural Break Testing," Global Business Review, International Management Institute, vol. 18(5), pages 1089-1110, October.
    8. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Zeshan, Muhammad & Afza, Talat, 2012. "Is energy consumption effective to spur economic growth in Pakistan? New evidence from bounds test to level relationships and Granger causality tests," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 29(6), pages 2310-2319.
    9. Balsalobre-Lorente, Daniel & Bekun, Festus Victor & Etokakpan, Mfonobong Udom & Driha, Oana M., 2019. "A road to enhancements in natural gas use in Iran: A multivariate modelling approach," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 64(C).
    10. Raza, Syed Ali & Shahbaz, Muhammad & Nguyen, Duc Khuong, 2015. "Energy conservation policies, growth and trade performance: Evidence of feedback hypothesis in Pakistan," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 80(C), pages 1-10.
    11. Dierk Herzer & Stephan Klasen & Felicitas Nowak-Lehmann D., 2006. "In search of FDI-led growth in developing countries," Ibero America Institute for Econ. Research (IAI) Discussion Papers 150, Ibero-America Institute for Economic Research.
    12. Muhammad Shahbaz & Amatul Razzaq Chaudhary & Syed Jawad Hussain Shahzad, 2020. "Is energy consumption sensitive to foreign capital inflows and currency devaluation in Pakistan?," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 50(52), pages 5641-5658, June.
    13. Muhammad, Shahbaz & Lean, Hooi Hooi & Muhammad, Shahbaz Shabbir, 2011. "Environmental Kuznets Curve and the role of energy consumption in Pakistan," MPRA Paper 34929, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 22 Nov 2011.
    14. Wu, Jyh-lin, 1998. "Are budget deficits "too large"?: The evidence from Taiwan," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 9(3), pages 519-528.
    15. Zouheir Abida, 2011. "Real Exchange Rate Misalignment and Economic Growth: An Empirical Study for the Maghreb Countries," Economic Alternatives, University of National and World Economy, Sofia, Bulgaria, issue 2, pages 45-61, July.
    16. Utku Utkulu & Dilek Seymen, 2004. "Trade and Competitiveness Between Turkey and the EU: Time Series Evidence," Working Papers 2004/8, Turkish Economic Association, revised Mar 2004.
    17. Saten Kumar, 2014. "Money demand income elasticity in advanced and developing countries: new evidence from meta-analysis," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 46(16), pages 1873-1882, June.
    18. Marcel Schroder, 2013. "Should developing countries undervalue their currencies?," Departmental Working Papers 2013-12, The Australian National University, Arndt-Corden Department of Economics.
    19. Arshian Sharif, Syed Ali Raza, 2016. "Dynamic Relationship between Urbanization, Energy Consumption and Environmental Degradation in Pakistan: Evidence from Structure Break Testing," Journal of Management Sciences, Geist Science, Iqra University, Faculty of Business Administration, vol. 3(1), pages 01-21, March.
    20. Hasanov, Fakhri J. & Shannak, Sa'd, 2020. "Electricity incentives for agriculture in Saudi Arabia. Is that relevant to remove them?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 144(C).
    21. Michael Fidora & Claire Giordano & Martin Schmitz, 2021. "Real Exchange Rate Misalignments in the Euro Area," Open Economies Review, Springer, vol. 32(1), pages 71-107, February.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:sae:globus:v:18:y:2017:i:4:p:825-848. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: SAGE Publications (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.imi.edu/ .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.