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Dynamics of Current Account Deficit: A Lesson from Pakistan


  • Syed Jawaid


  • Syed Raza



This study investigates the determinants of the current account deficit in Pakistan by using the annual time series data for the period from 1976 to 2010. The cointegration results suggest the positive and significant long run relationship of the current account deficit with the exchange rate, trade deficit and fiscal deficit while a significant negative relationship is found with external debt and private saving. The error correction model also confirms the significant positive relationship of the current account deficit with trade deficit and fiscal deficit in the short run. The Granger-causality test shows the bidirectional causal relationship of exchange rate and external debt with current account deficit. While, unidirectional causality is found from current account deficit to trade deficit and private savings. It is recommended that the government needs to be cautious in financing its fiscal deficit. Savings habits should be increased to narrow the investment gap in economy. Copyright Springer-Verlag Wien 2013

Suggested Citation

  • Syed Jawaid & Syed Raza, 2013. "Dynamics of Current Account Deficit: A Lesson from Pakistan," Transition Studies Review, Springer;Central Eastern European University Network (CEEUN), vol. 19(3), pages 357-366, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:trstrv:v:19:y:2013:i:3:p:357-366 DOI: 10.1007/s11300-012-0251-5

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Chinn, Menzie D. & Prasad, Eswar S., 2003. "Medium-term determinants of current accounts in industrial and developing countries: an empirical exploration," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(1), pages 47-76, January.
    2. Kwalingana, Samson & Nkuna, Onelie, 2009. "The Determinants of Current Account Imbalances in Malawi," MPRA Paper 14694, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Calderon Cesar Augusto & Chong Alberto & Loayza Norman V., 2002. "Determinants of Current Account Deficits in Developing Countries," The B.E. Journal of Macroeconomics, De Gruyter, vol. 2(1), pages 1-33, March.
    4. Johansen, Soren & Juselius, Katarina, 1990. "Maximum Likelihood Estimation and Inference on Cointegration--With Applications to the Demand for Money," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 52(2), pages 169-210, May.
    5. Ahmad Zubaidi Baharumshah & Evan Lau, 2007. "Dynamics of fiscal and current account deficits in Thailand: an empirical investigation," Journal of Economic Studies, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 34(6), pages 454-475, November.
    6. Granger, C W J, 1969. "Investigating Causal Relations by Econometric Models and Cross-Spectral Methods," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 37(3), pages 424-438, July.
    7. Hendry, David F, 1980. "Econometrics-Alchemy or Science?," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 47(188), pages 387-406, November.
    8. Hanan Morsy, 2009. "Current Account Determinants for Oil-Exporting Countries," IMF Working Papers 09/28, International Monetary Fund.
    9. Hamid Faruqee & Guy Debelle, 1996. "What Determines the Current Account? a Cross-Sectional and Panel Approach," IMF Working Papers 96/58, International Monetary Fund.
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    Cited by:

    1. Nurgun Topalli & İbrahim Dogan, 2016. "The structure and sustainability of current account deficit: Turkish evidence from regime switching," The Journal of International Trade & Economic Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 25(4), pages 570-589, June.

    More about this item


    Current account; Saving; Fiscal deficit; Trade deficit; External debt; Exchange rate; F32; E21; E62; F13; F35; F31;

    JEL classification:

    • E62 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - Fiscal Policy
    • F32 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Current Account Adjustment; Short-term Capital Movements
    • E21 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Consumption; Saving; Wealth


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