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Trade liberalisation in Mexico: rhetoric and reality

Author

Listed:
  • Pennelope Pacheco-Lopez

    () (National University of Mexico (UNAM), Mexico City (Mexico))

  • Anthony P. Thirlwall

    () (University of Kent, Department of Economics, Canterbury (Great Britain))

Abstract

Trade liberalisation in Mexico started in a significant way in 1985/86, and was consolidated by the NAFTA agreement 1994. Mexico was expected to benefit in terms of increased export growth, employment, real wages, and above all, a faster rate of economic growth. In practice, there has been a divorce between rhetoric and reality. The growth of GDP post-liberalisation has been only one-half that pre-liberalisation. This paper gives three explanations. Firstly, export growth has hardly changed. Secondly, there has been a sharp increase in the propensity to import (partly related to US direct foreign investment) which has reduced the growth of GDP consistent with a sustainable balance of payments equilibrium on current account. Thirdly, liberalisation has been used as a substitute for a development strategy.

Suggested Citation

  • Pennelope Pacheco-Lopez & Anthony P. Thirlwall, 2004. "Trade liberalisation in Mexico: rhetoric and reality," Banca Nazionale del Lavoro Quarterly Review, Banca Nazionale del Lavoro, vol. 57(229), pages 141-167.
  • Handle: RePEc:psl:bnlqrr:2004:23
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    File URL: http://ojs.uniroma1.it/index.php/PSLQuarterlyReview/article/view/9825/9710
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Mario Cimoli & Nelson Correa, 2002. "Trade Openess and Technological Gaps in Latin America: a Low Growth Trap," LEM Papers Series 2002/14, Laboratory of Economics and Management (LEM), Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa, Italy.
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    Cited by:

    1. Blecker, Robert A., 2009. "External Shocks, Structural Change, and Economic Growth in Mexico, 1979-2007," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(7), pages 1274-1284, July.
    2. Blecker, Robert A. & Ibarra, Carlos A., 2013. "Trade liberalization and the balance of payments constraint with intermediate imports: The case of Mexico revisited," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 33-47.
    3. Penelope Pacheco-Lopez & A.P. Thirlwall, 2005. "Trade Liberalisation, the Balance of Payments and Growth in Latin America," Studies in Economics 0505, School of Economics, University of Kent.
    4. Cruz, Moritz, 2008. "Can Free Trade Guarantee Gains from Trade?," WIDER Working Paper Series 097, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    5. Carlos A. Ibarra & Robert A. Blecker, 2016. "Structural change, the real exchange rate and the balance of payments in Mexico, 1960–2012," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 40(2), pages 507-539.
    6. Robert A. Blecker, 2006. "Macroeconomic and Structural Constraints on Export-Led Growth in Mexico," Working Papers 2006-05, American University, Department of Economics.
    7. Escobar Gamboa, Octavio Romano, 2009. "IDE entrants, exportations et productivité manufacturière : les différentes performances des régions mexicaines," Economics Thesis from University Paris Dauphine, Paris Dauphine University, number 123456789/3850 edited by Guillochon, Bernard.
    8. Robert Blecker, 2007. "External Shocks, Structural Change, and Economic Growth in Mexico, 1979-2006," Working Papers wp157, Political Economy Research Institute, University of Massachusetts at Amherst.
    9. Fugarolas Álvarez-Ude, Guadalupe & Matesanz Gómez, David, 2005. "Restricción de balanza de pagos y vulnerabilidad externa en la argentina de los noventa. Un análisis de caso," MPRA Paper 210, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2005.
    10. Penélope Pacheco-López, 2005. "Foreign Direct Investment, Exports and Imports in Mexico," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, pages 1157-1172.
    11. Ali, Syed Zahid & Anwar, Sajid & Valadkhani, Abbas, 2012. "Macroeconomic consequences of increased productivity in less developed economies," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 621-631.
    12. Beteta, Hugo E. & Moreno Brid, Juan Carlos, 2014. "Structural change and growth in Central America and the Dominican Republic: an overview of two decades, 1990-2011," Libros de la CEPAL, Naciones Unidas Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (CEPAL), number 122 edited by Eclac, March.
    13. repec:dau:papers:123456789/10604 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Agreement; Exports; GDP; Liberalization; NAFTA; Trade;

    JEL classification:

    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
    • F14 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Empirical Studies of Trade
    • F32 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Current Account Adjustment; Short-term Capital Movements
    • O19 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - International Linkages to Development; Role of International Organizations
    • O24 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Development Planning and Policy - - - Trade Policy; Factor Movement; Foreign Exchange Policy

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