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Return Migration and Occupational Change: The Case of Pakistani Migrants Returned from the Middle East

Author

Listed:
  • G.M. Arif

    (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad.)

  • M. Irfan

    (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad.)

Abstract

This paper examines the factors affecting occupational composition of Pakistani workers upon their return from Middle East employment by using the 1986 ILO/ARTEP Survey of Return Migrant Households. In view of the concentration of workers in lowstatus occupations prior to migration, there was a great incentive for them to change these occupations after return. The study shows that the economic resources gained from overseas employment gave migrants the strength to seek independent employment, and there was a clear move out of the production-service occupations into business and agriculture occupations. This movement was strongly related to migrants’ length of stay in the Middle East. Since the occupational structure of the general population remained almost unchanged in the 1970s and 1980s, the employment trends exhibited by return migrants could largely be attributed to overseas migration. However, the study shows that businesses and farms established by migrant workers were small-scale.

Suggested Citation

  • G.M. Arif & M. Irfan, 1997. "Return Migration and Occupational Change: The Case of Pakistani Migrants Returned from the Middle East," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 36(1), pages 1-37.
  • Handle: RePEc:pid:journl:v:36:y:1997:i:1:p:1-37
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    File URL: http://www.pide.org.pk/pdf/PDR/1997/Volume1/1-37.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Anu Abraham, 2020. "International Migration, Return Migration and Occupational Mobility: Evidence from Kerala, India," The Indian Journal of Labour Economics, Springer;The Indian Society of Labour Economics (ISLE), vol. 63(4), pages 1223-1243, December.
    2. Talip Kilic & Calogero Carletto & Benjamin Davis & Alberto Zezza, 2009. "Investing back home Return migration and business ownership in Albania1," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 17(3), pages 587-623, July.
    3. Fatma MABROUK & Jacob ODUOR & Abebe SHIMELES, 2015. "Remittances and Youth Labor Market Participation in Africa," Cahiers du GREThA (2007-2019) 2015-32, Groupe de Recherche en Economie Théorique et Appliquée (GREThA).
    4. Luis Miguel Tovar Cuevas & María Teresa Victoria Paredes, 2013. "Migración internacional de retorno y emprendimiento: revisión de la literatura," Revista de Economía Institucional, Universidad Externado de Colombia - Facultad de Economía, vol. 15(29), pages 41-65, July-Dece.
    5. Naudé, Wim & Siegel, Melissa & Marchand, Katrin, 2015. "Migration, Entrepreneurship and Development: A Critical Review," IZA Discussion Papers 9284, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    6. Démurger, Sylvie & Xu, Hui, 2011. "Return Migrants: The Rise of New Entrepreneurs in Rural China," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 39(10), pages 1847-1861.
    7. Craig Loschmann & Katrin Marchand, 2021. "The labor market reintegration of returned refugees in Afghanistan," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 56(3), pages 1033-1045, February.
    8. Naushin Mahmood, 2009. "Population and Development Demographic Research at PIDE," PIDE Books, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, number 2009:1 edited by Rashid Amjad & Aurangzeb A. Hashmi.
    9. G. M. Arif & Hina Nazli & Rashida Haq, 2000. "Rural Non-agriculture Employment and Poverty in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 39(4), pages 1089-1110.
    10. Muhammad Irfan, 2010. "A Review of the Labour Market Research at PIDE 1957-2009," PIDE Books, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, number 2010:1 edited by Rashid Amjad & Aurangzeb A. Hashmi.
    11. Wim Naudé & Melissa Siegel & Katrin Marchand, 2017. "Migration, entrepreneurship and development: critical questions," IZA Journal of Migration and Development, Springer;Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit GmbH (IZA), vol. 6(1), pages 1-16, December.
    12. Mohammad, Irfan, 1999. "Rural non-farm sector in Pakistan," MPRA Paper 38152, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    13. Mezger Kveder, Cora Leonie & Flahaux, Marie-Laurence, 2013. "Returning to Dakar: A Mixed Methods Analysis of the Role of Migration Experience for Occupational Status," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 223-238.

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