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Return Migration and Occupational Change: The Case of Pakistani Migrants Returned from the Middle East

  • G.M. Arif

    (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad.)

  • M. Irfan

    (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad.)

This paper examines the factors affecting occupational composition of Pakistani workers upon their return from Middle East employment by using the 1986 ILO/ARTEP Survey of Return Migrant Households. In view of the concentration of workers in lowstatus occupations prior to migration, there was a great incentive for them to change these occupations after return. The study shows that the economic resources gained from overseas employment gave migrants the strength to seek independent employment, and there was a clear move out of the production-service occupations into business and agriculture occupations. This movement was strongly related to migrants’ length of stay in the Middle East. Since the occupational structure of the general population remained almost unchanged in the 1970s and 1980s, the employment trends exhibited by return migrants could largely be attributed to overseas migration. However, the study shows that businesses and farms established by migrant workers were small-scale.

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Article provided by Pakistan Institute of Development Economics in its journal The Pakistan Development Review.

Volume (Year): 36 (1997)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
Pages: 1-37

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Handle: RePEc:pid:journl:v:36:y:1997:i:1:p:1-37
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  1. Mayhew, Ken & Rosewell, Bridget, 1981. "Occupational Mobility in Britain," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 43(3), pages 225-55, August.
  2. Prema-chandra Athukorala, 1990. "International Contract Migration And The Reintegration of Return Migrants, The Experience of Sri Lanka," Working Papers 1990.09 EDIRC Provider-In, School of Economics, La Trobe University.
  3. Boskin, Michael J, 1974. "A Conditional Logit Model of Occupational Choice," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 82(2), pages 389-98, Part I, M.
  4. M. Ghaffar Chaudhry & Ghulam Mustafa Chaudhry, 1992. "Trend of Rural Employment and Wages in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 31(4), pages 803-815.
  5. Andrew M. Gill, 1989. "The Role of Discrimination in Determining Occupational Structure," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 42(4), pages 610-623, July.
  6. Alain Lefebvre, 1990. "International Labour Migration from Two Pakistani Villages with Different Forms of Agriculture," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 29(1), pages 59-90.
  7. Georg Stauth, 1987. "Remigration and Social Change - Prospects for the Migrant Worker Sending Countries of the Middle East," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 26(4), pages 735-744.
  8. Randall S. Brown & Marilyn Moon & Barbara S. Zoloth, 1980. "Occupational Attainment and Segregation by Sex," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 33(4), pages 506-517, July.
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