IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Financial Development and Economic Growth: Evidence from a Heterogeneous Panel of High Income Countries


  • A.R. Kemal

    () (Visiting Professor of Economics, Fatima Jinnah University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan.)

  • Abdul Qayyum

    () (Registrar, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics (PIDE), Islamabad, Pakistan.)

  • Muhammad Nadim Hanif

    () (State Bank of Pakistan, Karachi, Pakistan.)


This paper examines the empirical relationship between financial development and economic growth for high income countries. The study focuses on both indirect finance and direct finance, separately as well as jointly. Applying the methodology of Nair-Reichert and Weinhold (2001) for causality analysis in heterogeneous panel data, two sets of results are reported. First, the evidence regarding the relationship between financial development and economic growth from a contemporaneous non-dynamic fixed effects panel estimation is mixed. Negative and statistically significant estimates of the coefficient of the inflation and financial development interaction variable indicate that financial sector development may even be harmful to economic growth when inflation is rising. Second, in contrast with the recent evidence of Beck and Levine (2003), heterogeneous panel causality analysis applied on a refined model indicates that there is no definite evidence that finance spurs economic growth or growth spurs finance. Most of our findings are in line with the Lucas (1988) view that the importance of financial matters is over-stressed. The only exception is the case of activity in stock markets where our result supports the Robinson (1952) view that finance follows enterprise.

Suggested Citation

  • A.R. Kemal & Abdul Qayyum & Muhammad Nadim Hanif, 2007. "Financial Development and Economic Growth: Evidence from a Heterogeneous Panel of High Income Countries," Lahore Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics, vol. 12(1), pages 1-34, Jan-Jun.
  • Handle: RePEc:lje:journl:v:12:y:2007:i:1:p:1-34

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:,%20Qayyum%20and%20Nadim.pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Jose De Gregorio & Federico Sturzenegger, 1994. "Credit Markets and the Welfare Costs of Inflation," NBER Working Papers 4873, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. A. R. Kemal, 2000. "Financing Economic Development," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 39(4), pages 293-311.
    3. Ross Levine, 1997. "Financial Development and Economic Growth: Views and Agenda," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 35(2), pages 688-726, June.
    4. Pesaran, M. Hashem & Smith, Ron, 1995. "Estimating long-run relationships from dynamic heterogeneous panels," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 79-113, July.
    5. De Gregorio, Jose & Sturzenegger, Federico, 1997. "Financial markets and inflation under imperfect information," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 54(1), pages 149-168, October.
    6. Ross Levine & Norman Loayza & Thorsten Beck, 2002. "Financial Intermediation and Growth: Causality and Causes," Central Banking, Analysis, and Economic Policies Book Series,in: Leonardo Hernández & Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel & Norman Loayza (Series Editor) & Klaus Schmidt-Hebbel (Se (ed.), Banking, Financial Integration, and International Crises, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 2, pages 031-084 Central Bank of Chile.
    7. Klaus Neusser & Maurice Kugler, 1998. "Manufacturing Growth And Financial Development: Evidence From Oecd Countries," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 80(4), pages 638-646, November.
    8. Lee, Kevin & Pesaran, M Hashem & Smith, Ron, 1997. "Growth and Convergence in Multi-country Empirical Stochastic Solow Model," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 12(4), pages 357-392, July-Aug..
    9. Hsiao, Cheng & Mountain, Dean C. & Chan, M. W. Luke & Tsui, Kai Y., 1989. "Modeling Ontario regional electricity system demand using a mixed fixed and random coefficients approach," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 565-587, December.
    10. Nair-Reichert, Usha & Weinhold, Diana, 2001. " Causality Tests for Cross-Country Panels: A New Look at FDI and Economic Growth in Developing Countries," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 63(2), pages 153-171, May.
    11. Hicks, J. R., 1969. "A Theory of Economic History," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198811633, June.
    12. Christopoulos, Dimitris K. & Tsionas, Efthymios G., 2004. "Financial development and economic growth: evidence from panel unit root and cointegration tests," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(1), pages 55-74, February.
    13. Beck, Thorsten & Levine, Ross & Loayza, Norman, 2000. "Finance and the sources of growth," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 58(1-2), pages 261-300.
    14. Pedroni, Peter, 1999. " Critical Values for Cointegration Tests in Heterogeneous Panels with Multiple Regressors," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 61(0), pages 653-670, Special I.
    15. Boyd, John H. & Levine, Ross & Smith, Bruce D., 2001. "The impact of inflation on financial sector performance," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(2), pages 221-248, April.
    16. Khan, Mohsin S. & Senhadji, Abdelhak S. & Smith, Bruce D., 2006. "Inflation And Financial Depth," Macroeconomic Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 10(02), pages 165-182, April.
    17. Huybens, Elisabeth & Smith, Bruce D., 1999. "Inflation, financial markets and long-run real activity," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(2), pages 283-315, April.
    18. Sangmok Choi & Bruce D. Smith & John H. Boyd, 1996. "Inflation, financial markets and capital formation," Proceedings, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue May, pages 9-35.
    19. van den Berg, Hendrik, 1997. "The relationship between international trade and economic growth in Mexico," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 1-21.
    20. Arellano, M, 1987. "Computing Robust Standard Errors for Within-Groups Estimators," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 49(4), pages 431-434, November.
    21. Diana Weinhold, 2004. "A Dynamic “Fixed Effects” Model for Heterogeneous Panel Data," Econometrics 0410003, EconWPA.
    22. Temple, Jonathan, 2000. " Inflation and Growth: Stories Short and Tall," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 14(4), pages 395-426, September.
    23. Kevin Lee & M. Hashem Pesaran & Ron Smith, "undated". "Growth and Convergence in a Multi-County empirical Stochastic Solow Model," Discussion Papers in Economics 96/14, Department of Economics, University of Leicester.
    24. Thorsten Beck & Asli Demirgüç-Kunt & Ross Levine, 2001. "Legal Theories of Financial Development," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 17(4), pages 483-501.
    25. Lucas, Robert Jr., 1988. "On the mechanics of economic development," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 3-42, July.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Simplice A. Asongu, 2015. "Finance and growth: new evidence from meta-analysis," Managerial Finance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 41(6), pages 615-639, June.
    2. Muhammad Zia Ullah Khan & Muhammad Illyas & Muqqadas Rahman & Chaudhary Abdul Rahman, 2015. "Money Monetization and Economic Growth in Pakistan," International Journal of Economics and Empirical Research (IJEER), The Economics and Social Development Organization (TESDO), vol. 3(4), pages 184-192, April.
    3. Raza, Syed Ali & Sabir, Muhammad Sarwar & Mehboob, Farhan, 2011. "Capital inflows and economic growth in Pakistan," MPRA Paper 36790, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Hsueh, Shun-Jen & Hu, Yu-Hau & Tu, Chien-Heng, 2013. "Economic growth and financial development in Asian countries: A bootstrap panel Granger causality analysis," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 294-301.
    5. Muhammad Zia Ullah Khan & Chaudhary Abdul Rahman, 2015. "Money, Monetization and Economic Growth in Pakistan," International Journal of Economics and Empirical Research (IJEER), The Economics and Social Development Organization (TESDO), vol. 3(3), pages 95-104, March.
    6. Henryk Gurgul & £ukasz Lach, 2012. "Financial Development and Economic Growth in Poland in Transition: Causality Analysis," Czech Journal of Economics and Finance (Finance a uver), Charles University Prague, Faculty of Social Sciences, vol. 62(4), pages 347-367, August.
    7. repec:sos:sosjrn:170301 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. repec:sos:sosjrn:170302 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Simplice A, Asongu, 2011. "Finance and growth: Schumpeter might be wrong in our era. New evidence from Meta-analysis," MPRA Paper 32559, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 07 Feb 2013.
    10. Roland-Holst, David & Sugiyarto, Guntur, 2014. "Growth Horizons for a Changing Asian Regional Economy," ADB Economics Working Paper Series 392, Asian Development Bank.
    11. Abdullahi D. Ahmed, 2010. "Financial liberalization, financial development and growth linkages in Sub-Saharan African countries: An empirical investigation," Studies in Economics and Finance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 27(4), pages 314-339, October.
    12. Uslu, Çağrı Levent & Aydoğan, Ebru Tomris & Ketenci, Natalya, 2015. "Economic Growth, Financial Development, and Trade Openness in Emerging Markets: Panel Approach," MPRA Paper 64722, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    13. Altuð Kazar & Görkemli Kazar, 2016. "Globalization, Financial Development and Economic Growth," International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, Econjournals, vol. 6(2), pages 578-587.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • O16 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Financial Markets; Saving and Capital Investment; Corporate Finance and Governance
    • E44 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:lje:journl:v:12:y:2007:i:1:p:1-34. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Shahid Salahuddin). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.