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How do people respond to congestion mitigation policies? A multivariate probit model of the individual consideration of three travel-related strategy bundles

  • Sangho Choo


  • Patricia Mokhtarian


This study explores the relationships between adoption and consideration of three travel-related strategy bundles (travel maintaining/increasing, travel reducing, and major location/lifestyle change), linking them to a variety of explanatory variables. The data for this study are the responses to a fourteen-page survey returned by nearly 1,300 commuting workers living in three distinct San Francisco Bay area neighborhoods in May 1998. We first identified patterns of adoption and consideration among the bundles, using pairwise correlation tests. The test results indicate that those who have adopted coping strategies continue to seek for improvements across the spectrum of generalized cost, but perhaps most often repeating the consideration of a previously-adopted bundle. Furthermore, we developed a multivariate probit model for individuals’ simultaneous consideration of the three bundles. It is found that in addition to the previous adoption of the bundles, qualitative and quantitative Mobility-related variables, Travel Attitudes, Personality, Lifestyle, Travel Liking, and Sociodemographics significantly affect individual consideration of the strategy bundles. Overall, the results of this study give policy makers and planners insight into understanding the dynamic nature of individuals’ responses to travel-related strategies, as well as differences between the responses to congestion that are assumed by policy makers and those that are actually adopted by individuals.

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Article provided by Springer in its journal Transportation.

Volume (Year): 35 (2008)
Issue (Month): 2 (March)
Pages: 145-163

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Handle: RePEc:kap:transp:v:35:y:2008:i:2:p:145-163
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  1. Stopher, Peter R., 2004. "Reducing road congestion: a reality check," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 11(2), pages 117-131, April.
  2. Sangho Choo & Gustavo Collantes & Patricia Mokhtarian, 2005. "Wanting to travel, more or less: Exploring the determinants of the deficit and surfeit of personal travel," Transportation, Springer, vol. 32(2), pages 135-164, 03.
  3. Arentze, Theo & Hofman, Frank & Timmermans, Harry, 2004. "Predicting multi-faceted activity-travel adjustment strategies in response to possible congestion pricing scenarios using an Internet-based stated adaptation experiment," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 31-41, January.
  4. Clay, Michael J. & Mokhtarian, Patricia L., 2004. "Personal Travel Management: The Adoption and Consideration of Travel-Related Strategies," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt3mw6d5hj, University of California Transportation Center.
  5. Mokhtarian, Patricia L. & Raney, Elizabeth A. & Salomon, Ilan, 1997. "Behavioral response to congestion: identifying patterns and socio-economic differences in adoption," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 4(3), pages 147-160, July.
  6. Lyons, Glenn & Urry, John, 2005. "Travel time use in the information age," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 39(2-3), pages 257-276.
  7. David T. Ory & Patricia L. Mokhtarian & Lothlorien S. Redmond & Ilan Salomon & Gustavo O. Collantes & Sangho Choo, 2004. "When is Commuting Desirable to the Individual?," Growth and Change, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 35(3), pages 334-359.
  8. Oude Lansink, Alfons & van den Berg, Mirella & Huirne, Ruud, 2003. "Analysis of strategic planning of Dutch pig farmers using a multivariate probit model," Agricultural Systems, Elsevier, vol. 78(1), pages 73-84, October.
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  13. Taylor, Brian D., 2002. "Rethinking Traffic Congestion," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt2fb4t8wd, University of California Transportation Center.
  14. Cao, Xinyu & Mokhtarian, Patricia L., 2005. "How do individuals adapt their personal travel? A conceptual exploration of the consideration of travel-related strategies," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt6357t1jj, University of California Transportation Center.
  15. Cao, Xinyu & Mokhtarian, Patricia L., 2005. "How do individuals adapt their personal travel? Objective and subjective influences on the consideration of travel-related strategies for San Francisco Bay Area commuters," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 12(4), pages 291-302, July.
  16. Salomon, Ilan & Mokhtarian, Patricia L., 1997. "Coping with Congestion: Understanding the Gap Between Policy Assumptions and Behavior," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt4bh3b670, University of California Transportation Center.
  17. Choo, Sangho & Mokhtarian, Patricia L, 2004. "Modeling the Individual Consideration of Travel-Related Strategy Bundles," Institute of Transportation Studies, Working Paper Series qt3123v46c, Institute of Transportation Studies, UC Davis.
  18. Noland, Robert B., 2001. "Relationships between highway capacity and induced vehicle travel," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 35(1), pages 47-72, January.
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