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How do individuals adapt their personal travel? Objective and subjective influences on the consideration of travel-related strategies for San Francisco Bay Area commuters

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  • Cao, Xinyu
  • Mokhtarian, Patricia L.

Abstract

This study operationalizes the conceptual analysis presented in a companion paper, to examine the effects of objective and subjective variables on the consideration of 16 travel-related strategies reflecting a range of individuals’ potential reactions to congestion. Using 1283 commuting respondents to a 1998 survey conducted in the San Francisco Bay Area, binary logit models were developed for the consideration of each individual strategy. The proportion of information explained by these models ranges from 0.18 to 0.63. It was found that the consideration of travel-related strategies is affected not only by the amounts of travel that individuals actually do, but also by their subjective assessments, desires and affinities with respect to travel, as well as their travel attitudes, personality and lifestyle. The previous adoption of these strategies greatly affects their current consideration, demonstrating an effect of past experience. Mobility constraints and socioeconomic and demographic characteristics exhibit distributional effects with respect to the options individuals consider. These findings imply that policies designed to alleviate congestion may be less effective than expected, because individuals’ responses to the travel-related strategies analyzed here—many of them directly tied to public policies intended to reduce vehicle travel—are influenced by a large variety of qualitative and experiential variables that are seldom measured and incorporated into demand models. Therefore, understanding the role of such variables will improve our ability to design effective policies and to accurately forecast the response to policy interventions as well as natural trends.

Suggested Citation

  • Cao, Xinyu & Mokhtarian, Patricia L., 2005. "How do individuals adapt their personal travel? Objective and subjective influences on the consideration of travel-related strategies for San Francisco Bay Area commuters," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt45k3391f, University of California Transportation Center.
  • Handle: RePEc:cdl:uctcwp:qt45k3391f
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Mokhtarian, Patricia L & Salomon, Ilan & S, Lothlorien, 2001. "Understanding the Demand for Travel: It's Not Purely 'Derived'," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt5bh2d8mh, University of California Transportation Center.
    2. Cao, Xinyu & Mokhtarian, Patricia L., 2005. "How do individuals adapt their personal travel? A conceptual exploration of the consideration of travel-related strategies," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 12(3), pages 199-206, May.
    3. Cullinane, Sharon, 1992. "Attitudes towards the car in the U.K.: Some implications for policies on congestion and the environment," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 26(4), pages 291-301, July.
    4. Arentze, Theo & Hofman, Frank & Timmermans, Harry, 2004. "Predicting multi-faceted activity-travel adjustment strategies in response to possible congestion pricing scenarios using an Internet-based stated adaptation experiment," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 31-41, January.
    5. Michael J. Clay * & Patricia L. Mokhtarian, 2004. "Personal travel management: the adoption and consideration of travel-related strategies," Transportation Planning and Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 27(3), pages 181-209, June.
    6. Sangho Choo & Gustavo Collantes & Patricia Mokhtarian, 2005. "Wanting to travel, more or less: Exploring the determinants of the deficit and surfeit of personal travel," Transportation, Springer, vol. 32(2), pages 135-164, March.
    7. Eric Hildebrand, 2003. "Dimensions in elderly travel behaviour: A simplified activity-based model using lifestyle clusters," Transportation, Springer, vol. 30(3), pages 285-306, August.
    8. Salomon, Ilan & Mokhtarian, Patricia L., 1997. "Coping with Congestion: Understanding the Gap Between Policy Assumptions and Behavior," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt4bh3b670, University of California Transportation Center.
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    Cited by:

    1. Cao, Xinyu & Mokhtarian, Patricia L., 2005. "How do individuals adapt their personal travel? A conceptual exploration of the consideration of travel-related strategies," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 12(3), pages 199-206, May.
    2. Ben-Elia, Eran & Ettema, Dick, 2011. "Rewarding rush-hour avoidance: A study of commuters' travel behavior," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 45(7), pages 567-582, August.
    3. Abu Oakil & Dick Ettema & Theo Arentze & Harry Timmermans, 2014. "Changing household car ownership level and life cycle events: an action in anticipation or an action on occurrence," Transportation, Springer, vol. 41(4), pages 889-904, July.
    4. Van Malderen, Laurent & Jourquin, Bart & Thomas, Isabelle & Vanoutrive, Thomas & Verhetsel, Ann & Witlox, Frank, 2012. "On the mobility policies of companies: What are the good practices? The Belgian case," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 21(C), pages 10-19.
    5. Carlton Basmajian, 2010. "“Turn on the radio, bust out a song”: the experience of driving to work," Transportation, Springer, vol. 37(1), pages 59-84, January.
    6. Laurent Van Malderen & Bart Jourquin & Isabelle Thomas & Thomas Vanoutrive & Ann Verhetsel & Frank Witlox, 2011. "Employer Mobility Plans: Acceptability, Efficiency And Costs," ERSA conference papers ersa10p291, European Regional Science Association.
    7. António Menezes & José Vieira, "undated". "Willingness to Pay for Airline Services Attributes: Microeconometric Evidence from a Stated Preference Discrete Choice Model," EcoMod2006 272100063, EcoMod.
    8. Sangho Choo & Patricia Mokhtarian, 2008. "How do people respond to congestion mitigation policies? A multivariate probit model of the individual consideration of three travel-related strategy bundles," Transportation, Springer, vol. 35(2), pages 145-163, March.
    9. De Menezes, Antonio Gomes & Vieira, J. C., 2008. "Willingness to pay for airline services attributes: evidence from a stated preferences choice game," European Transport \ Trasporti Europei, ISTIEE, Institute for the Study of Transport within the European Economic Integration, issue 39, pages 1-13.
    10. Gehlert, Tina & Kramer, Christiane & Nielsen, Otto Anker & Schlag, Bernhard, 2011. "Socioeconomic differences in public acceptability and car use adaptation towards urban road pricing," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 18(5), pages 685-694, September.
    11. Jonathan L. Gifford, 2011. "Psychology and Rationality in User Behavior: The Case of Scarcity," Chapters,in: A Handbook of Transport Economics, chapter 27 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    12. Márquez, Luis & Cantillo, Víctor & Arellana, Julián, 2014. "How are comfort and safety perceived by inland waterway transport passengers?," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 46-52.
    13. Kopnina, Helen & Williams, Melanie, 2012. "Car attitudes in children from different socio-economic backgrounds in the Netherlands," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 118-125.
    14. Le Vine, Scott & Chen, Bingqing (Emily) & Polak, John, 2014. "Does the income elasticity of road traffic depend on the source of income?," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 67(C), pages 15-29.
    15. repec:eee:touman:v:36:y:2013:i:c:p:133-140 is not listed on IDEAS
    16. Álvaro Fernández-Heredia & Sergio Jara-Díaz & Andrés Monzón, 2016. "Modelling bicycle use intention: the role of perceptions," Transportation, Springer, vol. 43(1), pages 1-23, January.
    17. Di Ciommo, Floridea & Monzón, Andrés & Fernandez-Heredia, Alvaro, 2013. "Improving the analysis of road pricing acceptability surveys by using hybrid models," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 302-316.

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