Not so cheap talk: costly and discrete communication
We model an interaction between an informed sender and an uninformed receiver. As in the classic cheap talk setup, the informed player sends a message to an uninformed receiver who is to take an action which affects the payoffs of both players. However, in our model, the sender can communicate only through the use of discrete messages which are ordered by the cost incurred by the sender. We characterize the resulting equilibria without refining out-of-equilibrium beliefs. Subsequently, we apply an adapted version of the no incentive to separate (NITS) condition to our model. We show that if the sender and receiver have aligned preferences regarding the action of the receiver, then NITS only admits the equilibrium with the largest possible number of induced actions. When the preferences between players are not aligned, we show that NITS does not guarantee uniqueness, and we provide an example where an increase in communication costs can improve communication. As we show, this improvement can occur to such an extent that the equilibrium outperforms the Goltsman et al. (J Econ Theory 144:1397–1420, 2009 ) upper bound for receiver’s payoffs in mediated communication. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Kartik, Navin & Ottaviani, Marco & Squintani, Francesco, 2007. "Credulity, lies, and costly talk," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 134(1), pages 93-116, May.
- Duffy, Sean & Hartwig, Tyson & Smith, John, 2010.
"Costly and discrete communication: An experimental investigation,"
24148, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Sean Duffy & Tyson Hartwig & John Smith, 2014. "Costly and discrete communication: an experimental investigation," Theory and Decision, Springer, vol. 76(3), pages 395-417, March.
- Duffy, Sean & Hartwig, Tyson & Smith, John, 2011. "Costly and discrete communication: An experimental investigation," MPRA Paper 30914, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Stephen Morris, 1999.
Cowles Foundation Discussion Papers
1242, Cowles Foundation for Research in Economics, Yale University.
- Cho, In-Koo & Kreps, David M, 1987.
"Signaling Games and Stable Equilibria,"
The Quarterly Journal of Economics,
MIT Press, vol. 102(2), pages 179-221, May.
- Blume, Andreas, et al, 1998. "Experimental Evidence on the Evolution of Meaning of Messages in Sender-Receiver Games," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 88(5), pages 1323-40, December.
- Mathias Dewatripont & Jean Tirole, 2005.
"Modes of Communication,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 113(6), pages 1217-1238, December.
- Oliver Board & Andreas Blume, 2008.
365, University of Pittsburgh, Department of Economics, revised Aug 2008.
- Kohlberg, Elon & Mertens, Jean-Francois, 1986.
"On the Strategic Stability of Equilibria,"
Econometric Society, vol. 54(5), pages 1003-37, September.
- E. Kohlberg & J.-F. Mertens, 1998. "On the Strategic Stability of Equilibria," Levine's Working Paper Archive 445, David K. Levine.
- KOHLBERG, Elon & MERTENS, Jean-François, . "On the strategic stability of equilibria," CORE Discussion Papers RP -716, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
- Hannu Vartiainen, 2009. "A Simple Model of Secure Public Communication," Theory and Decision, Springer, vol. 67(1), pages 101-122, July.
- Farrell, Joseph, 1986.
"Meaning and Credibility in Cheap-Talk Games,"
Department of Economics, Working Paper Series
qt4968n3fz, Department of Economics, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
- Spector, David, 2000. "Pure communication between agents with close preferences," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 66(2), pages 171-178, February.
- Olivier Gossner & Penélope Hernández & Abraham Neyman, 2006.
"Optimal Use of Communication Resources,"
Econometric Society, vol. 74(6), pages 1603-1636, November.
- Olivier Gossner & Abraham Neyman & Penélope Hernández, 2005. "Optimal Use Of Communication Resources," Working Papers. Serie AD 2005-06, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Económicas, S.A. (Ivie).
- Olivier Gossner & Penelope Hernandez & Abraham Neyman, 2004. "Optimal Use of Communication Resources," Discussion Paper Series dp377, The Federmann Center for the Study of Rationality, the Hebrew University, Jerusalem.
- Goltsman, Maria & Hörner, Johannes & Pavlov, Gregory & Squintani, Francesco, 2009. "Mediation, arbitration and negotiation," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 144(4), pages 1397-1420, July.
- Yeon-Koo Che & Navin Kartik, 2009.
"Opinions as Incentives,"
Journal of Political Economy,
University of Chicago Press, vol. 117(5), pages 815-860, October.
- Andreas Blume & Oliver Board & Kohei Kawamura, 2007.
ESE Discussion Papers
167, Edinburgh School of Economics, University of Edinburgh.
- Kawagoe, Toshiji & Takizawa, Hirokazu, 2009. "Equilibrium refinement vs. level-k analysis: An experimental study of cheap-talk games with private information," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 66(1), pages 238-255, May.
- Blume, Andreas & DeJong, Douglas V. & Kim, Yong-Gwan & Sprinkle, Geoffrey B., 2001.
"Evolution of Communication with Partial Common Interest,"
Games and Economic Behavior,
Elsevier, vol. 37(1), pages 79-120, October.
- Blume, Andreas & DeJong, Douglas V. & Kim, Yong-Gwan & Sprinkle, Geoffrey B., 1997. "Evolution of Communication with Partial Common Interest," Working Papers 97-18, University of Iowa, Department of Economics.
- Kartik, Navin, 2007. "A note on cheap talk and burned money," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 136(1), pages 749-758, September.
- Austen-Smith, David, 1994. "Strategic Transmission of Costly Information," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 62(4), pages 955-63, July.
- Matthews, Steven A. & Okuno-Fujiwara, Masahiro & Postlewaite, Andrew, 1991.
"Refining cheap-talk equilibria,"
Journal of Economic Theory,
Elsevier, vol. 55(2), pages 247-273, December.
- V. Crawford & J. Sobel, 2010.
"Strategic Information Transmission,"
Levine's Working Paper Archive
544, David K. Levine.
- Ying Chen & Navin Kartik & Joel Sobel, 2008. "Selecting Cheap-Talk Equilibria," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 76(1), pages 117-136, 01.
- Prat, Andrea & de Martí, Joan & Calvó-Armengol, Antoni, 0. "Communication and influence," Theoretical Economics, Econometric Society.
- Cai, Hongbin & Wang, Joseph Tao-Yi, 2006. "Overcommunication in strategic information transmission games," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 56(1), pages 7-36, July.
- Jacques Cremer & Luis Garicano & Andrea Prat, 2006.
"Language and the Theory of the Firm,"
784828000000000373, UCLA Department of Economics.
- Hugo M. Mialon & Sue H. Mialon, 2013. "Go Figure: The Strategy of Nonliteral Speech," American Economic Journal: Microeconomics, American Economic Association, vol. 5(2), pages 186-212, May.
- Austen-Smith, David & Banks, Jeffrey S., 2000.
"Cheap Talk and Burned Money,"
Journal of Economic Theory,
Elsevier, vol. 91(1), pages 1-16, March.
- Spence, A Michael, 1973. "Job Market Signaling," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 87(3), pages 355-74, August.
- Banks, Jeffrey S & Sobel, Joel, 1987.
"Equilibrium Selection in Signaling Games,"
Econometric Society, vol. 55(3), pages 647-61, May.
- Gerhard Jäger & Lars Koch-Metzger & Frank Riedel, 2009. "Voronoi languages: Equilibria in cheap-talk games with high-dimensional types and few signals," Working Papers 420, Bielefeld University, Center for Mathematical Economics.
- Morgan, John & Stocken, Phillip C, 2003.
" An Analysis of Stock Recommendations,"
RAND Journal of Economics,
The RAND Corporation, vol. 34(1), pages 183-203, Spring.
- Verrecchia, Robert E., 2001. "Essays on disclosure," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(1-3), pages 97-180, December.
- Cho, In-Koo & Sobel, Joel, 1990. "Strategic stability and uniqueness in signaling games," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 381-413, April.
- Verrecchia, Robert E., 1983. "Discretionary disclosure," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(1), pages 179-194, April.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:kap:theord:v:75:y:2013:i:2:p:267-291. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Guenther Eichhorn)or (Christopher F. Baum)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.