An aggregate quantity framework for measuring and decomposing productivity change
Total factor productivity (TFP) can be defined as the ratio of an aggregate output to an aggregate input. This definition naturally leads to TFP indexes that can be expressed as the ratio of an output quantity index to an input quantity index. If the aggregator functions satisfy certain regularity properties then these TFP indexes are said to be multiplicatively complete. This paper formally defines what is meant by completeness and reveals that (1) the class of multiplicatively complete TFP indexes includes Laspeyres, Paasche, Fisher, Törnqvist and Hicks-Moorsteen indexes, (2) the popular Malmquist TFP index of Caves et al. (Econometrica 50(6):1393–1414, 1982a ) is incomplete, implying it cannot always be interpreted as a measure of productivity change, (3) all multiplicatively complete TFP indexes can be exhaustively decomposed into measures of technical change and efficiency change, and (4) the efficiency change component can be further decomposed into measures of technical, mix and scale efficiency change. Artificial data are used to illustrate the decomposition of Hicks-Moorsteen and Fisher TFP indexes. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012
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