IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/kap/jmgtgv/v17y2013i2p363-403.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

How do boards of directors contribute to family SME export intensity? The role of formal and informal governance mechanisms

Author

Listed:
  • Andrea Calabrò

    ()

  • Donata Mussolino

    ()

Abstract

Internationalization is a strong challenge that firms have to face today. However, small and medium-sized family firms internationalize their business after consolidating their position in domestic markets. Family SMEs approach international markets usually through export activities. Considerable academic attention has been given to family SME export behaviour, however, the debate is still inconclusive. Therefore, more attention on family SME unique governance mechanisms may shed a new light on this issue. The paper analyses family SME export intensity by showing how the board of directors could provide assistance in the selection and implementation of this strategy. We explore whether, and to what extent, both formal and informal features of boards of directors (dual governance) influence family SME export intensity. This is explored in a sample of 101 Norwegian family SMEs. Export intensity is the dependent variable and hypotheses on the positive effect of independence in board behaviour (formal governance mechanism), relational norms and trust (informal governance mechanisms) are supported. The paper has substantial theoretical contributions and practical implications. The results show that formal and informal governance mechanisms can co-exist complementing and supplementing each other, thus positively influencing family SME export intensity. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2013

Suggested Citation

  • Andrea Calabrò & Donata Mussolino, 2013. "How do boards of directors contribute to family SME export intensity? The role of formal and informal governance mechanisms," Journal of Management & Governance, Springer;Accademia Italiana di Economia Aziendale (AIDEA), vol. 17(2), pages 363-403, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:jmgtgv:v:17:y:2013:i:2:p:363-403
    DOI: 10.1007/s10997-011-9180-7
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s10997-011-9180-7
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Lal, K., 2004. "E-Business and Export Behavior: Evidence from Indian Firms," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 32(3), pages 505-517, March.
    2. Leonidas C Leonidou & Constatine S Katsikeas, 1996. "The Export Development Process: An Integrative Review of Empirical Models," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 27(3), pages 517-551, September.
    3. John A Mathews & Ivo Zander, 2007. "The international entrepreneurial dynamics of accelerated internationalisation," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 38(3), pages 387-403, May.
    4. A R Gourlay & J S Seaton, 2004. "UK Export Behaviour at the Firm Level," Economic Issues Journal Articles, Economic Issues, vol. 9(2), pages 1-20, September.
    5. Steier, Lloyd, 2003. "Variants of agency contracts in family-financed ventures as a continuum of familial altruistic and market rationalities," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 18(5), pages 597-618, September.
    6. Gary A Knight & S Tamar Cavusgil, 2004. "Innovation, organizational capabilities, and the born-global firm," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 35(2), pages 124-141, March.
    7. Sami Basly, 2007. "The internationalization of family SME," Post-Print hal-00465863, HAL.
    8. Jensen, Michael C. & Meckling, William H., 1976. "Theory of the firm: Managerial behavior, agency costs and ownership structure," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 305-360, October.
    9. Yannick Bammens & Wim Voordeckers & Anita Gils, 2008. "Boards of directors in family firms: a generational perspective," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 31(2), pages 163-180, August.
    10. T. Buck & I. Filatotchev & N. demina & M. Wright, 2000. "Exporting Activity in Transitional Economies: An Enterprise-Level Study," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(2), pages 44-66.
    11. Westhead, Paul & Wright, Mike & Ucbasaran, Deniz, 2002. "International market selection strategies selected by 'micro' and 'small' firms," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 51-68, February.
    12. Dean A. Shepherd & Andrew Zacharakis, 2001. "The venture capitalist-entrepreneur relationship: Control, trust and confidence in co-operative behaviour," Venture Capital, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 3(2), pages 129-149, April.
    13. Davide Castellani, 2002. "Export behavior and productivity growth: Evidence from Italian manufacturing firms," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 138(4), pages 605-628, December.
    14. Jonas Gabrielsson & Henrik Winlund, 2000. "Boards of directors in small and medium-sized industrial firms: examining the effects of the board's working style on board task performance," Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(4), pages 311-330, October.
    15. Igor Filatotchev & Roger Strange & Jenifer Piesse & Yung-Chih Lien, 2007. "FDI by firms from newly industrialised economies in emerging markets: corporate governance, entry mode and location," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 38(4), pages 556-572, July.
    16. Coviello, Nicole E. & Jones, Marian V., 2004. "Methodological issues in international entrepreneurship research," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 485-508, July.
    17. Miller, Danny & Steier, Lloyd & Le Breton-Miller, Isabelle, 2003. "Lost in time: intergenerational succession, change, and failure in family business," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 513-531, July.
    18. Rialp, Alex & Rialp, Josep & Knight, Gary A., 2005. "The phenomenon of early internationalizing firms: what do we know after a decade (1993-2003) of scientific inquiry?," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 147-166, April.
    19. Zucchella, Antonella & Palamara, G. & Denicolai, S., 2007. "The drivers of the early internationalization of the firm," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 42(3), pages 268-280, September.
    20. Sherman, Hugh D. & Kashlak, Roger J. & Joshi, Maheshkumar P., 1998. "The effect of the board and executive committee characteristics on the degree of internationalization," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 4(4), pages 311-335, December.
    21. Shaker A Zahra, 2005. "A theory of international new ventures: a decade of research," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 36(1), pages 20-28, January.
    22. Aldrich, Howard E. & Cliff, Jennifer E., 2003. "The pervasive effects of family on entrepreneurship: toward a family embeddedness perspective," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 18(5), pages 573-596, September.
    23. Fama, Eugene F & Jensen, Michael C, 1983. "Separation of Ownership and Control," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 26(2), pages 301-325, June.
    24. Harvey James, 1999. "Owner as Manager, Extended Horizons and the Family Firm," International Journal of the Economics of Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 6(1), pages 41-55.
    25. McDougall, Patricia Phillips & Oviatt, Benjamin M., 1996. "New venture internationalization, strategic change, and performance: A follow-up study," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 11(1), pages 23-40, January.
    26. Shaker Zahra & Donald Neubaum & Lucia Naldi, 2007. "The Effects of Ownership and Governance on SMEs’ International Knowledge-based Resources," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 29(3), pages 309-327, October.
    27. Alessandro Minichilli & Cathrine Hansen, 2007. "The board advisory tasks in small firms and the event of crises," Journal of Management & Governance, Springer;Accademia Italiana di Economia Aziendale (AIDEA), vol. 11(1), pages 5-22, March.
    28. Leonidou, Leonidas C., 2000. "Barriers to export management: an organizational and internationalization analysis," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 6(2), pages 121-148.
    29. Zahra, Shaker A., 2003. "International expansion of U.S. manufacturing family businesses: the effect of ownership and involvement," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 495-512, July.
    30. Madsen, Tage Koed & Servais, Per, 1997. "The internationalization of Born Globals: An evolutionary process?," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 6(6), pages 561-583, December.
    31. Samiee, Saeed & Walters, Peter G. P., 1990. "Influence of firm size on export planning and performance," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 235-248, May.
    32. Bell, Jim & McNaughton, Rod & Young, Stephen, 2001. "'Born-again global' firms: An extension to the 'born global' phenomenon," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 7(3), pages 173-189.
    33. Majocchi, Antonio & Bacchiocchi, Emanuele & Mayrhofer, Ulrike, 2005. "Firm size, business experience and export intensity in SMEs: A longitudinal approach to complex relationships," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 14(6), pages 719-738, December.
    34. Gerald E. Fryxell, 2002. "After The Ink Dries: The Interaction Of Trust And Control In Us-Based International Joint Ventures," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 39(6), pages 865-886, September.
    35. Gary A Knight & S Tamer Cavusgil, 2004. "Innovation, organizational capabilities, and the born-global firm," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 35(4), pages 334-334, July.
    36. Fama, Eugene F, 1980. "Agency Problems and the Theory of the Firm," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 88(2), pages 288-307, April.
    37. Westhead, Paul & Wright, Mike & Ucbasaran, Deniz, 2001. "The internationalization of new and small firms: A resource-based view," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 333-358, July.
    38. Westerberg, Mats & Singh, Jagdip & Häckner, Einar, 1997. "Does the CEO matter? An empirical study of small Swedish firms operating in turbulent environments," Scandinavian Journal of Management, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 251-270, September.
    39. Daniel Z. Levin & Rob Cross, 2004. "The Strength of Weak Ties You Can Trust: The Mediating Role of Trust in Effective Knowledge Transfer," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 50(11), pages 1477-1490, November.
    40. Eric Gedajlovic & Michael H. Lubatkin & William S. Schulze, 2004. "Crossing the Threshold from Founder Management to Professional Management: A Governance Perspective," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 41(5), pages 899-912, July.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. repec:eee:fambus:v:8:y:2017:i:4:p:224-236 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Stucki, Tobias, 2016. "How the founders’ general and specific human capital drives export activities of start-ups," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(5), pages 1014-1030.
    3. Basly Sami, 2015. "Family Involvement in the Firm and Exports in the Family SME: Is the Manager’s International Orientation Influential?," Journal of Intercultural Management, Sciendo, vol. 7(3), pages 69-99, September.
    4. Gallucci, Carmen & Santulli, Rosalia & Calabrò, Andrea, 2015. "Does family involvement foster or hinder firm performance? The missing role of family-based branding strategies," Journal of Family Business Strategy, Elsevier, vol. 6(3), pages 155-165.
    5. repec:fan:macoma:v:html10.3280/maco2018-001003 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Bodolica, Virginia & Spraggon, Martin & Zaidi, Sahar, 2015. "Boundary management strategies for governing family firms: A UAE-based case study," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 68(3), pages 684-693.
    7. Ankur Roy & Chandra Sekhar & Vishal Vyas, 2016. "Barriers to internationalization: A study of small and medium enterprises in India," Journal of International Entrepreneurship, Springer, vol. 14(4), pages 513-538, December.
    8. Mohamad D. Revindo & Christopher Gan, 2018. "Factors Affecting Variation in SMES' Export Intensity," LPEM FEBUI Working Papers 201820, LPEM, Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Indonesia, revised May 2018.
    9. Christophe Volonté & Pascal Gantenbein, 2016. "Directors’ human capital, firm strategy, and firm performance," Journal of Management & Governance, Springer;Accademia Italiana di Economia Aziendale (AIDEA), vol. 20(1), pages 115-145, March.
    10. repec:spr:jbecon:v:87:y:2017:i:6:d:10.1007_s11573-016-0835-3 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Raúl Serrano & Isabel Acero-Fraile & Natalia Dejo-Oricain, 2017. "Collaborative networks and export intensity in family firms: a quantile regression approach," Documentos de Trabajo dt2017-04, Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Empresariales, Universidad de Zaragoza.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:kap:jmgtgv:v:17:y:2013:i:2:p:363-403. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Sonal Shukla) or (Rebekah McClure). General contact details of provider: http://www.springer.com .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.