Evidence of Differences in the Effectiveness of Safety-Net Management in European Union Countries
EU financial safety nets are social contracts that assign uncertain benefits and burdens to taxpayers in different member countries. To help national officials to assess their taxpayers' exposures to loss from partner countries, this paper develops a way to estimate how well markets and regulators in 14 of the EU-15 countries have controlled deposit-institution risk-shifting in recent years. Our method traverses two steps. The first step estimates leverage, return volatility, and safety-net benefits for individual EU financial institutions. For stockholder-owned banks, input data feature 1993-2004 data on stock-market capitalization. Parallel accounting values are used to calculate enterprise value (albeit less precisely) for mutual savings institutions. The second step uses the output from the first step as input into regression models of safety-net benefits and interprets the results. Parameters of the second-step models express differences in the magnitude of safety-net subsidies and in the ability of financial markets and regulators in member countries to restrain the flow of safety-net subsidies to commercial banks and savings institutions. We conclude by showing that banks from high-subsidy and low-restraint countries have initiated and received the lion's share of cross-border M&A activity. The efficiency, stabilization, and distributional effects of allowing banks to and from differently subsidized environments to expand their operations in partner countries pose policy issues that the EU ought to address.
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- Armen Hovakimian & Edward Kane & Luc Laeven, 2003.
"How Country and Safety-Net Characteristics Affect Bank Risk-Shifting,"
Journal of Financial Services Research,
Springer, vol. 23(3), pages 177-204, June.
- Hovakimian, Armen & Kane, Edward J. & Laeven, Luc, 2002. "How Country and Safety-Net Characteristics Affect Bank Risk-Shifting," CEI Working Paper Series 2002-10, Center for Economic Institutions, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
- Armen Hovakimian & Edward J. Kane & Luc Laeven, 2002. "How Country and Safety-Net Characteristics Affect Bank Risk-Shifting," NBER Working Papers 9322, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Honohan, Patrick & Klingebiel, Daniela, 2003. "The fiscal cost implications of an accommodating approach to banking crises," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(8), pages 1539-1560, August.
- Robert A. Eisenbeis & George G. Kaufman, 2007. "Cross-border banking: challenges for deposit insurance and financial stability in the European Union," FRB Atlanta Working Paper No. 2006-15, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
- Huizinga, Harry, 2005. "The EU Deposit Insurance Directive: Does One Size Fit All?," CEPR Discussion Papers 5277, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Robert A. Eisenbeis, 2004. "Agency problems and goal conflicts," FRB Atlanta Working Paper No. 2004-24, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
- Robert A. Eisenbeis, 2006. "Home country versus cross-border negative externalities in large banking organization failures and how to avoid them," FRB Atlanta Working Paper No. 2006-18, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
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