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Evidence of Differences in the Effectiveness of Safety-Net Management in European Union Countries

Author

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  • Santiago Carbo-Valverde
  • Edward J. Kane
  • Francisco Rodriguez-Fernandez

Abstract

EU financial safety nets are social contracts that assign uncertain benefits and burdens to taxpayers in different member countries. To help national officials to assess their taxpayers' exposures to loss from partner countries, this paper develops a way to estimate how well markets and regulators in 14 of the EU-15 countries have controlled deposit-institution risk-shifting in recent years. Our method traverses two steps. The first step estimates leverage, return volatility, and safety-net benefits for individual EU financial institutions. For stockholder-owned banks, input data feature 1993-2004 data on stock-market capitalization. Parallel accounting values are used to calculate enterprise value (albeit less precisely) for mutual savings institutions. The second step uses the output from the first step as input into regression models of safety-net benefits and interprets the results. Parameters of the second-step models express differences in the magnitude of safety-net subsidies and in the ability of financial markets and regulators in member countries to restrain the flow of safety-net subsidies to commercial banks and savings institutions. We conclude by showing that banks from high-subsidy and low-restraint countries have initiated and received the lion's share of cross-border M&A activity. The efficiency, stabilization, and distributional effects of allowing banks to and from differently subsidized environments to expand their operations in partner countries pose policy issues that the EU ought to address.

Suggested Citation

  • Santiago Carbo-Valverde & Edward J. Kane & Francisco Rodriguez-Fernandez, 2008. "Evidence of Differences in the Effectiveness of Safety-Net Management in European Union Countries," NBER Working Papers 13782, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:13782 Note: IFM
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Honohan, Patrick & Klingebiel, Daniela, 2003. "The fiscal cost implications of an accommodating approach to banking crises," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(8), pages 1539-1560, August.
    2. Robert A. Eisenbeis, 2004. "Agency problems and goal conflicts," FRB Atlanta Working Paper 2004-24, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
    3. Armen Hovakimian & Edward Kane & Luc Laeven, 2003. "How Country and Safety-Net Characteristics Affect Bank Risk-Shifting," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 23(3), pages 177-204, June.
    4. Robert A. Eisenbeis & George G. Kaufman, 2007. "Cross-border banking: challenges for deposit insurance and financial stability in the European Union," FRB Atlanta Working Paper 2006-15, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
    5. Huizinga, Harry, 2005. "The EU Deposit Insurance Directive: Does One Size Fit All?," CEPR Discussion Papers 5277, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    6. Robert A. Eisenbeis, 2006. "Home country versus cross-border negative externalities in large banking organization failures and how to avoid them," FRB Atlanta Working Paper 2006-18, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Carbó-Valverde, Santiago & Kane, Edward J. & Rodriguez-Fernandez, Francisco, 2013. "Safety-net benefits conferred on difficult-to-fail-and-unwind banks in the US and EU before and during the great recession," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(6), pages 1845-1859.
    2. Hagendorff, Jens & Hernando, Ignacio & Nieto, Maria J. & Wall, Larry D., 2012. "What do premiums paid for bank M&As reflect? The case of the European Union," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(3), pages 749-759.
    3. Jens Hagendorff & Maria J. Nieto & Larry D. Wall, 2012. "The safety and soundness effects of bank M&A in the EU," FRB Atlanta Working Paper 2012-13, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.
    4. Jens Hagendorff & María J. Nieto & Larry D. Wall, 2012. "The safety and soundness effects of bank M&As in the EU: does prudential regulation have any impact?," Working Papers 1236, Banco de España;Working Papers Homepage.
    5. Mark M. Spiegel, 2009. "Monetary and Financial Integration in the EMU: Push or Pull?," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 17(4), pages 751-776, September.
    6. Santiago Carbó-Valverde, 2007. "Implications of Basel II for Different Bank Ownership Patterns in Europe," Atlantic Economic Journal, Springer;International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 35(4), pages 391-397, December.
    7. Butzbach Olivier & von Mettenheim Kurt E., 2015. "Alternative Banking and Theory," Accounting, Economics, and Law: A Convivium, De Gruyter, vol. 5(2), pages 105-171, July.
    8. Weiß, Gregor N.F. & Neumann, Sascha & Bostandzic, Denefa, 2014. "Systemic risk and bank consolidation: International evidence," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 165-181.
    9. Allen Berger & Rima Turk-Ariss, 2015. "Do Depositors Discipline Banks and Did Government Actions During the Recent Crisis Reduce this Discipline? An International Perspective," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 48(2), pages 103-126, October.
    10. Santiago Carbo-Valverde & Edward J. Kane & Francisco Rodriguez-Fernandez, 2009. "Evidence of Regulatory Arbitrage in Cross-Border Mergers of Banks in the EU," NBER Working Papers 15447, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    11. Francesco Vallascas & Kevin Keasey, 2013. "The Volatility of European Banking Systems: A Two-Decade Study," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 43(1), pages 37-68, February.
    12. Phil Molyneux & Klaus Schaeck & Tim Zhou, 2011. "‘Too Systemically Important to Fail’ in Banking," Working Papers 11011, Bangor Business School, Prifysgol Bangor University (Cymru / Wales).
    13. Douglas Evanoff & Haluk Unal, 2008. "Introduction to the Special Issue: The Bank Structure Conference through the years," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, vol. 34(2), pages 93-97, December.
    14. Molyneux, Philip & Schaeck, Klaus & Zhou, Tim Mi, 2014. "‘Too systemically important to fail’ in banking – Evidence from bank mergers and acquisitions," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 49(PB), pages 258-282.

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    JEL classification:

    • F02 - International Economics - - General - - - International Economic Order and Integration

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