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Regulatory Arbitrage in Cross‐Border Banking Mergers within the EU

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  • SANTIAGO CARBO‐VALVERDE
  • EDWARD J. KANE
  • FRANCISCO RODRIGUEZ‐FERNANDEZ

Abstract

Expanding the cross‐country footprint of an organization's profit‐making activities changes the geographic pattern of its exposure to loss in ways that are hard for regulators and supervisors to observe. This paper tests and confirms the hypothesis that differences in the size and character of safety‐net benefits available to banks in individual EU countries help to account for cross‐border merger activity. Our results suggest that central bankers need to develop statistical procedures for assessing the consequences of differences in supervisory strength and weakness in partner countries. We believe that the methods used here can help in this task.

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  • Santiago Carbo‐Valverde & Edward J. Kane & Francisco Rodriguez‐Fernandez, 2012. "Regulatory Arbitrage in Cross‐Border Banking Mergers within the EU," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 44(8), pages 1609-1629, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:wly:jmoncb:v:44:y:2012:i:8:p:1609-1629
    DOI: 10.1111/j.1538-4616.2012.00546.x
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    Cited by:

    1. Vollmer Uwe, 2015. "‚Stairway to Heaven‘ oder ‚Highway to Hell‘? – Eine Einschätzung der Europäischen Bankenunion / ‚Stairway to Heaven‘ or ‚Highway to Hell‘? – An Evaluation of the European Banking Union," ORDO. Jahrbuch für die Ordnung von Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft, De Gruyter, vol. 66(1), pages 147-174, January.
    2. Frame, W. Scott & Mihov, Atanas & Sanz, Leandro, 2020. "Foreign Investment, Regulatory Arbitrage, and the Risk of U.S. Banking Organizations," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 55(3), pages 955-988, May.
    3. Lim, Ivan & Hagendorff, Jens & Armitage, Seth, 2019. "Is the fox guarding the henhouse? Bankers in the Federal Reserve, bank leverage and risk-shifting," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 478-504.
    4. Flannery, Mark J. & Giacomini, Emanuela, 2015. "Maintaining adequate bank capital: An empirical analysis of the supervision of European banks," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 236-249.
    5. Annick Pamen Nyola & Alain Sauviat & Amine Tarazi, 2017. "How Does Regulation Affect the Organizational Form of Banks' Presence in Developing and Developed Countries?," Working Papers hal-01369658, HAL.
    6. Beccalli, Elena & Frantz, Pascal, 2016. "Why are some banks recapitalized and others taken over?," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 79-95.
    7. Demirguc-Kunt,Asli & Horvath,Balint Laszlo & Huizinga,Harry P., 2019. "Regulatory Arbitrage and Cross-Border Syndicated Loans," Policy Research Working Paper Series 9037, The World Bank.
    8. Weiß, Gregor N.F. & Neumann, Sascha & Bostandzic, Denefa, 2014. "Systemic risk and bank consolidation: International evidence," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 165-181.
    9. Boyer, Pierre C. & Kempf, Hubert, 2020. "Regulatory arbitrage and the efficiency of banking regulation," Journal of Financial Intermediation, Elsevier, vol. 41(C).
    10. Srivastav, Abhishek & Armitage, Seth & Hagendorff, Jens & King, Tim, 2018. "Better safe than sorry? CEO inside debt and risk-taking in bank acquisitions," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 208-224.
    11. Hans Degryse & Sanja Jakovljević & Steven Ongena, 2015. "A Review of Empirical Research on the Design and Impact of Regulation in the Banking Sector," Annual Review of Financial Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 7(1), pages 423-443, December.
    12. Vollmer Uwe, 2016. "The Asymmetric Implementation of the European Banking Union (EBU): Consequences for Financial Stability," International Journal of Management and Economics, Warsaw School of Economics, Collegium of World Economy, vol. 50(1), pages 7-26, June.
    13. Stefano Caiazza & Alberto Franco Pozzolo & Giovanni Trovato, 2014. "Do domestic and cross-border M&As differ? Cross-country evidence from the banking sector," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 24(14), pages 967-981, July.
    14. Beccalli, Elena & Frantz, Pascal, 2016. "Why are some banks recapitalized and others taken over?," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 67305, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    15. D’Avino, Carmela, 2017. "Banking regulation and the changing geography of off-balance sheet activities," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 157(C), pages 155-158.
    16. Raluca Roman, 2015. "Shareholder activism in banking," Research Working Paper RWP 15-9, Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City.
    17. Michele Fratianni & John Pattison, 2014. "Basel III, Clubs and Eurozone Asymmetries," Mo.Fi.R. Working Papers 94, Money and Finance Research group (Mo.Fi.R.) - Univ. Politecnica Marche - Dept. Economic and Social Sciences.
    18. Brealey, Richard A & Cooper, Ian A & Kaplanis, Evi, 2019. "The effect of mergers on US bank risk in the short run and in the long run," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 108(C).
    19. Carmela D’Avino, 2019. "Extraterritoriality of swaps regulation and regulatory arbitrage," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 56(2), pages 167-187, December.
    20. Gersbach, Hans & Haller, Hans & Papageorgiou, Stylianos, 2020. "Regulatory competition in banking: Curse or blessing?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 121(C).

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