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Eat or be eaten: a theory of mergers and firm size

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Listed:
  • Gary Gorton
  • Matthias Kahl
  • Richard J. Rosen

Abstract

We propose a theory of mergers that combines managerial merger motives and a regime shift that may lead to some value- increasing merger opportunities. Anticipation of the regime shift can lead to mergers, either for defensive or positioning reasons. Defensive mergers occur when managers acquire other firms to avoid being acquired themselves. Mergers may also allow a firm to position itself as a more attractive takeover target and earn a takeover premium. The identity of acquirers and targets and the profitability of acquisitions depend, among other factors, on the distribution of firm sizes within an industry.

Suggested Citation

  • Gary Gorton & Matthias Kahl & Richard J. Rosen, 2006. "Eat or be eaten: a theory of mergers and firm size," Working Paper Series WP-06-14, Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago.
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fedhwp:wp-06-14
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    1. repec:eee:corfin:v:46:y:2017:i:c:p:207-231 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Alexandridis, George & Fuller, Kathleen P. & Terhaar, Lars & Travlos, Nickolaos G., 2013. "Deal size, acquisition premia and shareholder gains," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, pages 1-13.
    3. Reddy, Kotapati Srinivasa, 2015. "Extant Reviews on Entry-mode/Internationalization, Mergers & Acquisitions, and Diversification: Understanding Theories and Establishing Interdisciplinary Research," MPRA Paper 63744, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2015.
    4. repec:eee:finana:v:54:y:2017:i:c:p:144-158 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Ana Lozano-Vivas & Miguel A. Meléndez-Jiménez & Antonio J. Morales, 2016. "Branching Deregulation and Merger Optimality," Manchester School, University of Manchester, vol. 84(2), pages 270-295, March.
    6. repec:eee:transa:v:103:y:2017:i:c:p:444-454 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Aybar, Bülent & Thanakijsombat, Thanarerk, 2015. "Financing decisions and gains from cross-border acquisitions by emerging-market acquirers," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 69-80.
    8. Blonigen, Bruce A. & Fontagné, Lionel & Sly, Nicholas & Toubal, Farid, 2014. "Cherries for sale: The incidence and timing of cross-border M&A," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, pages 341-357.
    9. Odero Naor Juma & Peter T. Wawire & Prof. John Byaruhanga & Ochieng Okaka & Odhiambo Odera, 2012. "Impact of bank mergers on shareholders’ wealth," International Journal of Business and Social Research, MIR Center for Socio-Economic Research, vol. 2(6), pages 162-177, November.
    10. Ludivine Chalençon, 2011. "La Performance des Fusions-Acquisitions : une Revue de la Littérature," Post-Print halshs-00690634, HAL.
    11. Xie, En & Reddy, K.S. & Liang, Jie, 2017. "Country-specific determinants of cross-border mergers and acquisitions: A comprehensive review and future research directions," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, pages 127-183.
    12. John Goddard & Donal McKillop & John Wilson, 2009. "Which Credit Unions are Acquired?," Journal of Financial Services Research, Springer;Western Finance Association, pages 231-252.
    13. Bodnaruk, Andriy & O'Brien, William & Simonov, Andrei, 2016. "Captive finance and firm's competitiveness," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, pages 210-228.
    14. Ulrich Erxleben & Dirk Schiereck, 2015. "Wealth creation of mergers in downturn markets," Journal of Management Control: Zeitschrift für Planung und Unternehmenssteuerung, Springer, vol. 26(4), pages 317-345, October.
    15. Caiazza, Stefano & Pozzolo, Alberto Franco, 2016. "The determinants of failed takeovers in the banking sector: Deal or country characteristics?," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 72(S), pages 92-103.
    16. Habib, Michel A. & Mella-Barral, Pierre, 2013. "Skills, core capabilities, and the choice between merging, allying, and trading assets," Journal of Mathematical Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(1), pages 31-48.
    17. Chen, Tao & Harford, Jarrad & Lin, Chen, 2015. "Do analysts matter for governance? Evidence from natural experiments," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 115(2), pages 383-410.
    18. Neuhauser, Karyn L. & Thompson, Thomas H., 2016. "Survivability following reverse stock splits: What determines the fate of non-surviving firms?," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, pages 1-22.
    19. García-Feijóo, Luis & Madura, Jeff & Ngo, Thanh, 2012. "Impact of industry characteristics on the method of payment in mergers," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, pages 261-274.
    20. Hong Zhu & Qi Zhu, 2016. "Mergers and acquisitions by Chinese firms: A review and comparison with other mergers and acquisitions research in the leading journals," Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Springer, pages 1107-1149.
    21. Caprio, Lorenzo & Croci, Ettore & Del Giudice, Alfonso, 2011. "Ownership structure, family control, and acquisition decisions," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, pages 1636-1657.
    22. Parama Barai & Pitabas Mohanty, 2014. "Role of industry relatedness in performance of Indian acquirers—Long and short run effects," Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Springer, pages 1045-1073.
    23. Jory, Surendranath R. & Madura, Jeff & Ngo, Thanh N., 2012. "Deal structure decision in the global market for divested assets," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 104-116.

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    Keywords

    Bank mergers;

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