A Stakeholder Approach to the Ethicality of BRIC-firm Managers’ Use of Favors
This article investigates the use of favors by managers of BRIC firms to accomplish business goals, the ethicality of which should be determined by the moral reasoning in these countries rather than from a developed country perspective. We define a favor as an exchange of outcomes between individuals, typically utilizing one’s connections, that is based on a commonly understood cultural tradition, with reciprocity by the receiver typically not being immediate, and its value being less than what would constitute bribery within that cultural context. This exchange normally takes place between and among members of networks, and may involve a network outsider contacted by a network insider on behalf of another insider. We see the giver and receiver of the favor, as well as network insiders and outsiders, as stakeholders. Additionally, society could also be considered to be a stakeholder since the practice of using favors generally inhibits the development of legitimate, strong formal institutions, since the use of favors in emerging economies is rooted in cultural traditions that we view as informal institutions. Furthermore, we assert that the practice of using favors can lead to bribery which harms society as a stakeholder both morally and economically. We posit that BRIC-country managers’ behaviors stem from informal, culturally based practices—jeito in Brazil, blat/sviazi in Russia, jaan-pehchaan in India, and guanxi in China. We utilize institutional theory to explain why favors are relied upon, and ISCT to support the argument that the use of favors in environments like the BRICs is generally considered ethical. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012
Volume (Year): 109 (2012)
Issue (Month): 1 (August)
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://www.springer.com|
|Order Information:||Web: http://www.springer.com/social+sciences/applied+ethics/journal/10551/PS2|
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Michael C. Jensen, 2001.
"Value Maximization, Stakeholder Theory, And The Corporate Objective Function,"
Journal of Applied Corporate Finance,
Morgan Stanley, vol. 14(3), pages 8-21.
- Michael Jensen, 2001. "Value Maximisation, Stakeholder Theory, and the Corporate Objective Function," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 7(3), pages 297-317.
- Michael C. Jensen, 2010. "Value Maximization, Stakeholder Theory, and the Corporate Objective Function," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 22(1), pages 32-42.
- Nguyen, Thang V. & Rose, Jerman, 2009. "Building trust--Evidence from Vietnamese entrepreneurs," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 165-182, March.
- Bryan W Husted, 1999. "Wealth, Culture, and Corruption," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 30(2), pages 339-359, June.
- Bat Batjargal, 2007. "Network triads: transitivity, referral and venture capital decisions in China and Russia," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 38(6), pages 998-1012, November.
- Michailova, Snejina & Worm, Verner, 2003. "Personal Networking in Russia and China:: Blat and Guanxi," European Management Journal, Elsevier, vol. 21(4), pages 509-519, August.
- Freeman, R. Edward, 1994. "The Politics of Stakeholder Theory: Some Future Directions," Business Ethics Quarterly, Cambridge University Press, vol. 4(04), pages 409-421, October.
- Boisot, Max & Meyer, Marshall W., 2008. "Which Way through the Open Door? Reflections on the Internationalization of Chinese Firms," Management and Organization Review, Cambridge University Press, vol. 4(03), pages 349-365, November.
- Justin Tan & Irene Chow, 2009. "Isolating Cultural and National Influence on Value and Ethics: A Test of Competing Hypotheses," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 88(1), pages 197-210, April.
- Bat Batjargal, 2007. "Comparative Social Capital: Networks of Entrepreneurs and Venture Capitalists in China and Russia," Management and Organization Review, The International Association for Chinese Management Research, vol. 3(3), pages 397-419, November.
- Heidi Weltzien Hoivik, 2007. "East Meets West: Tacit Messages about Business Ethics in Stories Told by Chinese Managers," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 74(4), pages 457-469, September.
- Batjargal, Bat, 2007. "Comparative Social Capital: Networks of Entrepreneurs and Venture Capitalists in China and Russia," Management and Organization Review, Cambridge University Press, vol. 3(03), pages 397-419, November.
- Phillips, Robert & Freeman, R. Edward & Wicks, Andrew C., 2003. "What Stakeholder Theory is Not," Business Ethics Quarterly, Cambridge University Press, vol. 13(04), pages 479-502, October.
- Luo, Yadong, 2008. "The changing Chinese culture and business behavior: The perspective of intertwinement between guanxi and corruption," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 188-193, April.
- Juan Sanchez & Carolina Gomez & Guillermo Wated, 2008. "A Value-based Framework for Understanding Managerial Tolerance of Bribery in Latin America," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 83(2), pages 341-352, December.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:kap:jbuset:v:109:y:2012:i:1:p:27-38. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Sonal Shukla)or (Rebekah McClure)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.