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Are family allowances and fertility-related pensions perfect substitutes?

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  • Robert Fenge

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  • Volker Meier

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Abstract

This paper discusses alternative ways to deal with the positive externalities of having children in a pay-as-you-go pension system. Family allowances are compared to introducing a fertility-related component into the pension formula. In an endogenous labor supply setting, both instruments are shown to be equivalent if general pensions are related to previous contributions. In contrast, if general pensions are of the flat-rate type, making pensions contingent on the number of children is generally preferable to family allowances because the latter creates a larger tax load on labor supply.
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Suggested Citation

  • Robert Fenge & Volker Meier, 2009. "Are family allowances and fertility-related pensions perfect substitutes?," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 16(2), pages 137-163, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:itaxpf:v:16:y:2009:i:2:p:137-163
    DOI: 10.1007/s10797-007-9060-x
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Bas Groezen & Lex Meijdam, 2008. "Growing old and staying young: population policy in an ageing closed economy," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 21(3), pages 573-588, July.
    2. Michele BOLDRIN & Mariacristina DE NARDI & Larry E. JONES, 2015. "Fertility and Social Security," JODE - Journal of Demographic Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 81(3), pages 261-299, September.
    3. Robert Fenge & Volker Meier, 2005. "Pensions and fertility incentives," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 38(1), pages 28-48, February.
    4. Cigno, Alessandro & Pettini, Anna, 2002. "Taxing family size and subsidizing child-specific commodities?," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 84(1), pages 75-90, April.
    5. Alessandro Cigno & Luca Casolaro & Furio C. Rosati, 2002. "The Impact of Social Security on Saving and Fertility in Germany," FinanzArchiv: Public Finance Analysis, Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, vol. 59(2), pages 189-189, May.
    6. Tomas Kögel, 2004. "Did the association between fertility and female employment within OECD countries really change its sign?," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 17(1), pages 45-65, February.
    7. Bernhard Felderer & Klaus Ritzberger, 1995. "Family allowances as welfare improvements," Journal of Economics, Springer, vol. 61(1), pages 11-33, February.
    8. Kolmar, Martin, 2001. "Optimal Intergenerational Redistribution in a Two-Country Model with Endogenous Fertility," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 106(1-2), pages 23-51, January.
    9. van Groezen, Bas & Leers, Theo & Meijdam, Lex, 2003. "Social security and endogenous fertility: pensions and child allowances as siamese twins," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(2), pages 233-251, February.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Meier, Volker & Wrede, Matthias, 2010. "Pensions, fertility, and education," Journal of Pension Economics and Finance, Cambridge University Press, vol. 9(01), pages 75-93, January.
    2. repec:ebl:ecbull:v:9:y:2008:i:7:p:1-7 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Robert Fenge & Beatrice Scheubel, 2017. "Pensions and fertility: back to the roots," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 30(1), pages 93-139, January.
    4. Tim Buyse, 2014. "Pensions and fertility: a simple proposal for reform," Working Papers of Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, Ghent University, Belgium 14/888, Ghent University, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
    5. Luciano Fanti & Luca Gori, 2014. "Endogenous fertility, endogenous lifetime and economic growth: the role of child policies," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 27(2), pages 529-564, April.
    6. Loumrhari, Ghizlan, 2016. "Vieillissement démographique et réforme paramétrique des retraites. Les enseignements d’un modèle EGC-GI pour le Maroc
      [Ageing and pension reform. A computational olg model for Morocco]
      ," MPRA Paper 74077, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Andras Simonovits, 2015. "Optimal Child-Related Transfers with Endogenous Fertility," IEHAS Discussion Papers 1514, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
    8. Stauvermann, Peter Josef & Kumar, Ronald, 2014. "Enhancing Growth and Welfare through debt-financed Education," MPRA Paper 59455, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. Andras Simonovits, 2015. "Optimal Child-Related Transfers and Personal Income Tax with Endogenous Fertility," IEHAS Discussion Papers 1524, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
    10. Luciano Fanti & Luca Gori, 2013. "Fertility-related pensions and cyclical instability," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 26(3), pages 1209-1232, July.
    11. Andras Simonovits, 2013. "Savings, Child Support, Pensions and Endogenous (and Heterogeneous) Fertility," IEHAS Discussion Papers 1335, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
    12. Fanti, Luciano & Gori, Luca, 2012. "PAYG pensions, tax-cum-subsidy and A-Pareto efficiency," Research in Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(1), pages 65-71.
    13. Andras Simonovits, 2015. "Socially Optimal Child-Related Transfers and Personal Income Tax with Endogenous Fertility," IEHAS Discussion Papers 1537, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
    14. Stauvermann, Peter J. & Ky, Sereyvath & Nam, Gi-Yu, 2013. "The Costs of Increasing the Fertility Rate in an Endogenous Growth Model," MPRA Paper 46381, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    15. Simonovits, András, 2014. "Gyermektámogatás, nyugdíj és endogén/heterogén termékenység - egy modell
      [Child support, pensions and endogenous (and heterogeneous) fertility. A model]
      ," Közgazdasági Szemle (Economic Review - monthly of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences), Közgazdasági Szemle Alapítvány (Economic Review Foundation), vol. 0(6), pages 672-692.
    16. Peter J. Stauvermann & Ronald R. Kumar, 2016. "Sustainability of A Pay-as-you-Go Pension System in A Small Open Economy with Ageing, Human Capital and Endogenous Fertility," Metroeconomica, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 67(1), pages 2-20, February.
    17. Stauvermann, Peter Josef & Kumar, Ronald, 2013. "Financing human capital development via government debt: a small country case using overlapping generations framework," MPRA Paper 47453, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    18. Andras Simonovits, 2014. "Optimal Child Allowances with Heterogeneous Fertilities," IEHAS Discussion Papers 1401, Institute of Economics, Centre for Economic and Regional Studies, Hungarian Academy of Sciences.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Pay-as-you-go pension; Child benefits; Fertility; Externalities; H23; H55; J13; J18;

    JEL classification:

    • H23 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue - - - Externalities; Redistributive Effects; Environmental Taxes and Subsidies
    • H55 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies - - - Social Security and Public Pensions
    • J13 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Fertility; Family Planning; Child Care; Children; Youth
    • J18 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Public Policy

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