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Fertility, human capital accumulation, and the pension system

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  • Cremer, Helmuth
  • Gahvari, Firouz
  • Pestieau, Pierre

Abstract

This paper provides a unified treatment of externalities associated with fertility and human capital accumulation within pay-as-you-go pension systems. It considers an overlapping generations model in which every generation consists of high earners and low earners with the proportion of types being determined endogenously. The number of children is deterministically chosen but the children's future ability is in part stochastic, in part determined by the family background, and in part through education. In addition to the customary externality source associated with a change in average fertility rate, this setup highlights another externality source. This is due to the effect of a parent's choice of number and educational attainment of his children on the proportion of high-ability individuals in the steady state. Our other results include: (i) Investments in education of high- and low-ability parents must be subsidized; (ii) direct child subsidies to one or both parent types can be negative; i.e., they can be taxes; (iii) net subsidies to children (direct child subsidies plus education subsidies) to at least one type of parents must be positive; (iv) parents who have a higher number of children should invest less in their education.

Suggested Citation

  • Cremer, Helmuth & Gahvari, Firouz & Pestieau, Pierre, 2011. "Fertility, human capital accumulation, and the pension system," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(11), pages 1272-1279.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:pubeco:v:95:y:2011:i:11:p:1272-1279
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jpubeco.2010.09.014
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    Cited by:

    1. Hsiao-Lei Chu, 2015. "Private Tutoring, Wealth Constraint and Higher Education," Pacific Economic Review, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 20(4), pages 608-634, October.
    2. Yu-Fu Chen & Michael Funke, 2010. "Booms, Recessions And Financial Turmoil: A Fresh Look At Investment Decisions Under Cyclical Uncertainty," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 57(s1), pages 290-317, July.
    3. Cremer, Helmuth & Gahvari, Firouz & Pestieau, Pierre, 2011. "Fertility, human capital accumulation, and the pension system," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(11), pages 1272-1279.
    4. Giam Cipriani, 2014. "Population aging and PAYG pensions in the OLG model," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 27(1), pages 251-256, January.
    5. Szilvia Szegõ, 2011. "Pensions containing allowance paid by children – why and how?," Public Finance Quarterly, State Audit Office of Hungary, vol. 56(4), pages 429-445.
    6. Cipriani, Giam Pietro, 2016. "Aging, Retirement and Pay-As-You-Go Pensions," IZA Discussion Papers 9969, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    7. Yasuoka, Masaya & Oguro, Kazumasa, 2015. "Public Education, Pension and Debt Policy," CIS Discussion paper series 649, Center for Intergenerational Studies, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
    8. Masatoshi Jinno & Masaya Yasuoka, 2016. "Are the social security benefits of pensions or child-care policies best financed by a consumption tax?," Business and Economic Horizons (BEH), Prague Development Center, vol. 12(3), pages 94-112, September.
    9. Gurgen Aslanyan, 2014. "The migration challenge for PAYG," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 27(4), pages 1023-1038, October.
    10. C. Fan & Jie Zhang, 2013. "Differential fertility and intergenerational mobility under private versus public education," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 26(3), pages 907-941, July.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Pay-as-you-go social security; Endogenous fertility; Education; Endogenous ratio of high to low-ability types; Three externality sources; Education subsidies; Child subsidies;

    JEL classification:

    • H2 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue
    • H5 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies

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