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Fertility, human capital accumulation, and the pension system

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  • Cremer, Helmuth
  • Gahvari, Firouz
  • Pestieau, Pierre

Abstract

This paper provides a unified treatment of externalities associated with fertility and human capital accumulation within pay-as-you-go pension systems. It considers an overlapping generations model in which every generation consists of high earners and low earners with the proportion of types being determined endogenously. The number of children is deterministically chosen but the children's future ability is in part stochastic, in part determined by the family background, and in part through education. In addition to the customary externality source associated with a change in average fertility rate, this setup highlights another externality source. This is due to the effect of a parent's choice of number and educational attainment of his children on the proportion of high-ability individuals in the steady state. Our other results include: (i) Investments in education of high- and low-ability parents must be subsidized; (ii) direct child subsidies to one or both parent types can be negative; i.e., they can be taxes; (iii) net subsidies to children (direct child subsidies plus education subsidies) to at least one type of parents must be positive; (iv) parents who have a higher number of children should invest less in their education.

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  • Cremer, Helmuth & Gahvari, Firouz & Pestieau, Pierre, 2011. "Fertility, human capital accumulation, and the pension system," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(11), pages 1272-1279.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:pubeco:v:95:y:2011:i:11:p:1272-1279
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jpubeco.2010.09.014
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    Cited by:

    1. Uchida, Yuki & Ono, Tetsuo, 2022. "Politics of Public Education and Pension Reform with Endogenous Fertility," MPRA Paper 112748, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Cremer, Helmuth & Gahvari, Firouz & Pestieau, Pierre, 2011. "Fertility, human capital accumulation, and the pension system," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(11), pages 1272-1279.
    3. Cipriani, Giam Pietro & Fioroni, Tamara, 2022. "Social security and endogenous demographic change: child support and retirement policies," Journal of Pension Economics and Finance, Cambridge University Press, vol. 21(3), pages 307-325, July.
    4. Cipriani, Giam Pietro, 2018. "Aging, Retirement, And Pay-As-You-Go Pensions," Macroeconomic Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 22(5), pages 1173-1183, July.
    5. Giam Cipriani, 2014. "Population aging and PAYG pensions in the OLG model," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 27(1), pages 251-256, January.
    6. Masatoshi Jinno & Masaya Yasuoka, 2016. "Are the social security benefits of pensions or child-care policies best financed by a consumption tax?," Business and Economic Horizons (BEH), Prague Development Center, vol. 12(3), pages 94-112, September.
    7. Bréchet, Thierry & Jouvet, Pierre-André & Rotillon, Gilles, 2013. "Tradable pollution permits in dynamic general equilibrium: Can optimality and acceptability be reconciled?," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 91(C), pages 89-97.
    8. Simon Fan & Yu Pang & Pierre Pestieau, 2022. "Investment in children, social security, and intragenerational risk sharing," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 29(2), pages 286-315, April.
    9. Siew Ling Yew & Jie Zhang, 2018. "Health spending, savings and fertility in a lifecycle-dynastic model with longevity externalities," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 51(1), pages 186-215, February.
    10. Simon Fan & Yu Pang & Pierre Pestieau, 2020. "A model of the optimal allocation of government expenditures," Journal of Public Economic Theory, Association for Public Economic Theory, vol. 22(4), pages 845-876, August.
    11. Johannes, Jan & Van Bellegem, Sébastien & Vanhems, Anne, 2010. "Iterative Regularization in Nonparametric Instrumental Regression," TSE Working Papers 10-184, Toulouse School of Economics (TSE).
    12. Yasuoka, Masaya & Oguro, Kazumasa, 2015. "Public Education, Pension and Debt Policy," CIS Discussion paper series 649, Center for Intergenerational Studies, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
    13. Yu‐Fu Chen & Michael Funke, 2010. "Booms, Recessions And Financial Turmoil: A Fresh Look At Investment Decisions Under Cyclical Uncertainty," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 57(3), pages 290-317, July.
    14. C. Fan & Jie Zhang, 2013. "Differential fertility and intergenerational mobility under private versus public education," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 26(3), pages 907-941, July.
    15. Hsiao-Lei Chu, 2015. "Private Tutoring, Wealth Constraint and Higher Education," Pacific Economic Review, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 20(4), pages 608-634, October.
    16. Wei Gao & Chengliang Yan & Fuyang Zhao, 2021. "Longevity, Grandparents Caring, and PAYG Pensions," Annals of Economics and Finance, Society for AEF, vol. 22(2), pages 451-465, November.
    17. Bandyopadhyay, Debasis & La Pere, Anatoly, 2020. "Raising productivity with pension premium," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 92(C), pages 295-308.
    18. Peter J. Stauvermann & Frank Wernitz, 2019. "Why Child Allowances Fail to Solve the Pension Problem of Aging Societies," Economies, MDPI, vol. 7(4), pages 1-16, December.
    19. Szilvia Szegõ, 2011. "Pensions containing allowance paid by children – why and how?," Public Finance Quarterly, State Audit Office of Hungary, vol. 56(4), pages 429-445.
    20. Gurgen Aslanyan, 2014. "The migration challenge for PAYG," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 27(4), pages 1023-1038, October.
    21. Takuya Obara & Yoshitomo Ogawa, 2020. "Optimal Taxation in an Endogenous Fertility Model with Non-Cooperative Couples," Discussion Paper Series 211, School of Economics, Kwansei Gakuin University, revised Jan 2021.
    22. Cipriani, Giam Pietro & Fioroni, Tamara, 2021. "Endogenous Demographic Change, Retirement, And Social Security," Macroeconomic Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 25(3), pages 609-631, April.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Pay-as-you-go social security; Endogenous fertility; Education; Endogenous ratio of high to low-ability types; Three externality sources; Education subsidies; Child subsidies;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • H2 - Public Economics - - Taxation, Subsidies, and Revenue
    • H5 - Public Economics - - National Government Expenditures and Related Policies

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